DIGITALNA ARHIVA ŠUMARSKOG LISTA
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The study aims to compare the growth of common beech provenances, and to determine the beginning and end of the phenological stages of leafing in the international provenance test in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
In this research, we measured morphological traits and observed phenology on common beech plants in the international provenance test near Kakanj, Bosnia and Herzegowina. The test was established in 2006 with one-year-old and two-year-old seedlings. It includes eight provenances from Bosnia and Herzegovina, four from Germany, three from Serbia, two each from Croatia, Romania, and Switzerland, and one from Hungary (table 1).
In the spring of 2017, we measured the heights (in cm) and root collar diameters (in mm) of plants and observed six phenological phases of leafing (figure 1): A - Sleeping buds; B - Buds swelled; C - Buds begin to open; D - Hairy leaves begin to appear; E - Leaves open, still fanlike; F - Leaves fully developed.
Analysis of variance showed statistically significant differences among provenances for morphological traits of height (table 3), and root collar diameter (table 6). Duncan test showed grouping of populations into seven groups for the trait of height (table 8), and eight groups for the trait of root collar diameter (table 10), but groups overlapped.
Multivariate analysis for height (Table 7) and root neck diameter (Table 9) revealed statistically significant differences only at the population level and not between trees within the population, nor at the population interaction level x tree.
The average height for all provenances was 164.6 cm (table 2), and the average root collar diameter was 33.4 mm (table 5). The lowest average height (104.2 cm) and root collar diameter (22.6 mm) had provenance of Alba - Iulia from Romania (9664). The highest average height (197.4 cm) and root collar diameter (40.1 mm) had provenance Dilj Čaglinski from Croatia (9624).
We identified differences between provenances regarding the occurrence of phenological stages of leafing (table 11), as well as regarding the duration of phenological phases (table 10). Phase B occurred the earliest on 31.3. in provenances Grmeč Jasenica and Dinara from Bosnia and Herzegovina and Cer from Serbia. Phase B occurred the latest on 8.5 in provenances Herzogenbuchsee from Switzerland and NS Hasbruch from Germany. Phenophase F appeared the earliest on 1.5. in provenance Valkony from Hungary.
Analysis of variance showed statistically significant differences among provenances for the length of phenological stages (table 12).
Further measurements of morphological traits need to be made to determine the tendencies of growth of particular provenances in subsequent stages of development.
It is also necessary to observe the phenological stages of leafing. It will help to evaluate the effects of the genetic constitution and annual climate on phenological trends. The results of this study will be used to choose the best provenances in terms of productivity and resistance to late spring frosts.
Key words: leafing phenological stages, height, root collar diameter, common beech, provenance test