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Assesment of trap color and trap height above the ground on the capture of Ips sexdentatus and Thanasimus formicarius
Procjena boje i visine feromonske klopke iznad zemlje za ulov Ips sexdentatus i Thanasimus formicarius
Erol Akkuzu, Mustafa Şahin, Abdullah Ugiş, Ebru Bal
The six-toothed pine bark beetle Ips sexdentatus is one of the most devastating bark beetles of Eurasian pine forests. Pheromone traps are used to monitor and control Ips sexdentatus populations. In this study, the effect of trap color and trap height on the capture of Ips exdentatus and its predator the ant beetle Thanasimus formicarius was investigated. The research was conducted in Pinus sylvestris stands within Yayla Forest Enterprise Chief (Kastamonu-Daday) in Turkey. In the study area, 25 Scandinavian type three-funnel traps of 5 different colors (yellow, white, green, black, and red traps with five replications) were used. Traps were placed at the same height, 1.5 m above ground. For the second part of the study, a total of 20 traps (5 per height category) was placed 1.0 m, 1.5 m, 2.0 m, and 2.5 m above ground. Traps were controlled at intervals of 7-10 days and captured Ips exdentatus and Thanasimus formicarius were counted. The results of the study were as follows: 1) Significant differences in the number of captures by trap color, and 2) No significant differences in the numbers of Ips sexdentatus and Thanasimus formicarius captured between the trap heights.
Key words: Six-toothed pine bark beetle, ant beetle, trap height, trap color, pine
Bark beetles, belong to the subfamily Scolytinae within the family Curculionidae (Coleoptera), are one of the most destructive groups among the xyloephagous species on trees (Cebeci and Baydemir 2018). Although most of the bark beetle species are secondary pests, defined as infesting freshly killed trees or killing living trees of subnormal physiological condition (Rudinsky 1962, Stark 1982, Lausch et al. 2013, Lieutier et al. 2016), they cause tremendous amount of mortality and/or growth loss of conifers.
The six-toothed pine bark beetle, Ips sexdentatus (Boerner, 1776), is one of the most devastating pests of the most of the European pine forests (Jactel and Gaillard, 1991) feeding predominantly on Pinus spp. but during outbreaks may attack even Picea spp. (Rener and Maja 2001, Ozcan et al. 2011, Avtzis et al. 2019). Althouh this species mainly prefers trees that are somehow wekakened or otherwise under stress, it can even attack and kill healthy trees at high population levels (Rossi et al. 2009, Pineau et al. 2017).
Various control and monitoring methods have been established to reduce bark beetle’s adverse effects on forests.

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Among them, commercially produced pheromone traps against bark beetles and wood-boring insects have been used in forestry practice for more than 40 years (Galko et al. 2016).
The eyes of scolytids have about 100-240 ommatidia, relatively less than many insects (Chapman 1972, Byers et al. 1989). Although scolytids have low visual acuity (Byers et al. 1989, Byers 1995), many factors such as trap design and shape may influence the number of pests captured (McLean and Borden 1979, Lindgren et al. 1983, Borden et al. 1986).
Thanasimus formicarius (Linnaeus, 1758) (Col. Cleridae), one of the main predators of Ips sexdentatus (Martin et al. 2013), are saproxylic predators of Scolytinae (bark beetles), both as adults and as larvae (Thomaes et al. 2017). Although pheromone traps are used for monitoring and mass trapping of bark beetles, there are some negative effects on natural enemies. Many insect predators are attracted to pheromone traps and thus are removed along with target beetles (Stephen and Dahlsten 1976, Gregoire et al. 1992, Seybold 1993, Ross and Daterman 1995, Valkama et al. 1997, Dahlsten et al. 2003).
Trap efficacy of pheromone baited traps for bark beetles is affected by many factors: trap color (Paraschiv et al. 2012), trap types (Galko et al. 2016), pheromone dispensers (Zahradníková and Zahradník 2017), and trap placement (Brar et al. 2012, Dodds 2014).
The aim of this study was to compare the positive effects of trap colors and trap heights on the capture of Ips sexdentatus and their negative effects on Thanasimus formicarius.
Materijali i Metode
Study area – Područje istraživanja
The study area Forest Enterprise Chief of Kastamonu-Yayla (41°24’52’’N−41°31’42’’E) is situated in Western Blacksea region of Turkey. The total area of the study area is 9259.3 ha out of which 6693.9 ha covered with forests. Sites are located on the southern inclination and at altitudes ranging from 1200-1270 m asl.
The main tree species of the study area is Scoth pine (Pinus sylvestris), covering about 90% of the stem basal area mixed with Pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) and Uludağ fir (Abies bornmülleriana).
Experimental Design and Procedure – Eksperimentalni dizajn i postupak
The study was conducted from June 9 to August 18, 2017 in Scoth pine dominated stands mixed with pedunculate oak and Uludag fir. SMC IPSEK® lures targeted for Ips sexdentatus were used in this sdudy. The active ingredient in the lures was 100 mg Ipsdienol/Dispenser. The lure was replaced every 4 weeks on each pheromone trap. The pheromone traps were checked at 7-10 day intervals from June to August 2017. The captured insects were collected in the field and brought into the Entomology Laboratory of Kastamonu University Faculty of Forestry for identification, counting, and photographing.
For the firsth experiment, five different color of traps (black, white, yellow, red and green) were compared to determine the effect of color on the capture of Ips sexdentatus and Thanasimus formicarius. Scandinavian type three funnel traps were used for the experiment and were hung at a height of 1.5 m above the ground. The distance between traps was about 30 m, and each trap was about 5 m away from the nearest tree. A total of 25 traps were installed and each trap color was represented by five traps (replications) per location.
For the second experiment, four black colour Scandinavian type three funnel traps were hung at heights of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 m as one set to compare the effect of trap height on capturing the pest Ips sexdentatus and the predator Thanasimus formicarius. Five sets of traps (total of 20 traps) were placed along a line in west-easth direction in the field. The distance between traps was about 50 m.
Statistical Analysis – Statistička analiza
All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS® 22 software. The normality of the distributions was tested using a Kolmogorov–Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk tests. Trap catch data were subjected to Kruskal-Wallis test at a significance limit of p<0.05 followed by multiple comparison test (Post hoc Dunn’s test). Pearson’s correlation analysis was also used to investigate the corelations between the pest Ips sexdentatus and associated predator Thanasimus formicarius.
Rezultati i rasprava
Trap color – Boja klopki
In the color-response experiment the highest number of Ips sexdentatus was captured by black color traps followed by red, green, yellow and the lowest was white color trap.

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Significant differences in the mean total capture of Ips sexdentatus were noted among the five trap colors (df = 4, p < 0.005) (Figure 3). Post hoc Dunn’s test showed that significantly more Ips sexdentatus were captured by black traps than white ones (p<0.003) (Table 2). No significant differences were occurred among the other trap colors (Table 3). Although there were no statistically significant differences in numbers of Thanasimus formicarius captured between the trap colors (p<0.098), white-color trap was the least attractive pheromone trap followed by yellow, red, green, and black traps (Fig. 1).
Pearson correlation analysis was performed to determine the relationship between the number of Ips sexdentatus and Thanasimus formicarius captured by pheromone traps. The test indicated that a significant and positive relationship existed between the pest and the predator (p <0.01) (Table 4).
In this study, dark traps (Black, Green and Red) were found to be more effective in attracting insects than light traps in general (Yellow and White). This result is consistent with Chen et al. (2009)’s findings on I. duplicatus. In addition, Strom et al. (1999) and Strom and Goyer (2001) showed that funnel-type black-colored traps caught more Dendroctonus frontalis and D. brevicomis than white-colored traps. Dubbel et al. (1985) found that for I. typographus and Trypodendron lineatum no significant differences were observed in clear, black, green, grey and redbrown traps, whereas catches in white traps were significantly lower. Mizell III and Tedders (1999) reported that dark colored

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(black and brown) tedders traps were more effective for Hylobius pales (Herbst) and Pachylobius picivorus (Germar) insects than yellow-colored and white-colored traps. Mizell III and Tedders (1999) stated that due to the dark color of coniferous trees’ stem, the insects damaging these trees may tend to dark traps.
Yellow colored sticky traps resembling the color of flowers are used in order to catch insect species of agricultural pests. On the other hand, light colors (white or yellow) probably resemble the color of non-host angiosperm tree trunks, which is a strong visual barrier for conifer bark beetles (Strom et al. 1999, Strom and Goyer 2001, Campbell and Borden 2009).
In this study, although there was no significant difference, dark-color traps (black, green, red) attracted more Thanasimus formicarius than light ones (yellow and white). Since black color traps are widely used today for monitoring and mass trapping of bark beetles, this result creates an undesirable situation in terms of biological control of bark beetles.
Trap installation height – Visina postavljanja klopke
Pheromone traps set at a height of 2 m had the highest mean attractiveness for Ips sexdentatus, followed by 1.5 m, 2.5 m, and 1 m. On the other hand, the number of trapped Thanasimus formicarius at 2.5 m-trap height was the highest, followed by 2 m, 1.5 m, and 1 m (Fig. 2). The results howewer showed that trap height on Ips sexdentatus (p<0.534) and Thanasimus formicarius (p<0.416) attraction was not significant (Table 5).
Chen et al. (2009) partially supports our findings in their study on I. duplicatus. Chen et al. (2009) reported that the trap height at 1.5-2 m captured more insects then the trap height at ground level or 3.5-4 m. According to Göktürk et al. (2010), the most effective trap height for I. typographus was 2m, followed by a height of 5, 3, 4, and as in our findings the least effective was 1 m-height traps. Göktürk et al. (2010) evaluated that shrub and herbaceous cover or forest floor may interrup the functioning of 1 m height-pheromone traps, and since the flying height of I. typographus is about 2 m, most of the pest may be captured by the traps hung at height of 1 m.
Pearson correlation analysis was performed to determine the relationship between the number of Ips sexdentatus and Thanasimus formicarius captured by pheromone traps depending on trap heights from the ground (Table 4.10). The test indicated that a significant and positive relationship existed between the pest and the predator (p <0.01) (Table 6).
Thanasimus formicarius is attracted to bark beetle pheromones and host plant volatile compounds that bark beetles use for locating host trees and their mates (Bakke and Kvamme 1981, Kohnle and Vite 1984, Tommeras 1988, Seybold et al. 2006). Indeed, Lopez and Goldarazena (2012) reported that the most common predator in the traps was Thanasimus formicarius in their study. This proves that Thanasimus formicarius has a strong orientation towards Ips sexdentatus pheromone.
This paper is produced from the master thesis of Mustafa Şahin titled “Effect of Type, Color and Hanging Height of Ips sexdentatus Pheromone Traps on Capture Rates” at Kastamonu University, Institute of Science and Technology.

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Šesterozubi borov potkornjak Ips sexdentatus jedan je od najrazornijih potkornjaka u euroazijskim borovim šumama. Za praćenje populacija Ips sexdentatus koriste se feromonske klopke. U ovom radu istraživali smo utjecaj boje i visine klopki na ulov Ips sexdentatus i njegovog predatora Thanasimus formicarius. Istraživanje je provedeno u sastojinama Pinus sylvestris unutar Yayla Forest Enterprise Chief (Kastamonu-Daday) u Turskoj. U području istraživanja koristili smo 25 skandinavskih klopki s tri lijevka u pet različitih boja (žute, bijele, zelene, crne i crvene klopke). Klopke su postavljene na istu visinu, 1,5 m iznad zemlje. U drugom dijelu istraživanja postavljeno je ukupno 20 klopki (5 po visinskoj kategoriji) na visine od 1,0 m, 1,5 m, 2,0 m, i 2,5 m iznad zemlje. Klopke smo kontrolirali u intervalima od 7-10 dana i izbrojali smo jedinke Ips sexdentatus i T. formicarius. Dobiveni podaci su obrađeni Kruskal-Wallisovim testovima i testovima višestrukih usporedbi. Rezultati ispitivanja su sljedeći: 1) Značajne razlike u broju ulova u odnosu na boju klopki, 2) Postoji značajan i pozitivni odnos između štetnika i predatora, 3) Nisu utvrđene značajne razlike u broju uhvaćenih jedinki Ips sexdentatus i T. formicarius u odnosu na visine klopki.
Ključne riječi: Šestozubi borov potkornjak, mravasti kornjaš, visina klopke, boja klopke, bor