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ŠUMARSKI LIST 7-8/2021 str. 39     <-- 39 -->        PDF

upheld even before the status of Dalmatia within the Austrian Empire was resolved so it is likely that the transitional period was not especially disruptive regarding the regulations (Racolta delle leggi ed odrinanze…, 1830). In fact, almost immediately, in 1814, further regulations concerning woodland protection were implemented (Grubić, 1928). The Austrians also retained territorial guards, who were responsible for preventing various types of criminal activities including those in rural areas, as well as village patrols and rural police for the prevention of agricultural and woodland damage (Oršolić, 2007).
However, these regulations and laws were not particulary successful and in 1821 it was reported that most of sacred groves established by the French were utterly devastated.16 To rectify this situation the Austrian administration continued the practice of establishing sacred groves and in 1821 they ordered the renewal of all sacred groves that had been established by the French, along with the same regulations that existed in the French period.17 The order mandated that specific areas had to be encircled with a dry-stone wall and exploitation completely prohibited so that woodland could be established. Further regulations included the strict prohibition of cutting of any trees and shoots, digging of stumps, damaging enclosure wall and any type of pasture and were described as a repetition of those implemented by the French (Racolta delle leggi ed odrinanze…, 1834). Archival sources for Šibenik area confirm that the order was upheld by the local communities as archival records describe the establishment of sacred groves in Prigrada and Oštrica areas in the early 1820s confirming that this practice was not exclusive to the French period.18
The Austrian proclamation on establishment of sacred groves from 1821 brings further details about the precise name of these woodlands.19 Since Italian was official language in Dalmatia until 1880s the proclamation also used the term sacro bosco. However, this document was bilingual, and the old-Croatian translation was also included for the proclamation and it does not use the term sveti gaj or sacred grove (Fig. 3). In two instances it translates sacro bosco as sahranjen gaj which translates in English as buried grove. However, this could be a mistake in transcription as in later instances the term sacro bosco is translated as zabranjen gaj which translates in English as forbidden grove (Fig. 3). A mistake between sahranjen and