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ŠUMARSKI LIST 7-8/2021 str. 40     <-- 40 -->        PDF

zabranjen in two very similar letters (s-z and h-b) is a probable occurrence with a language that was not official and spoken among the illiterate rural population. Another explanation is possible. According to Gabrić-Bagarić (2004), in medieval and early modern times, the word sahranjen used to mean sačuvan (eng. preserved) which would imply these were areas with preserved woodland. Another translation before Kesterčanek’s comes from Krunoslav Jović in his translation of Guttenberg’s work on Dalmatian woodlands from 1872, which was written in Italian. Jović translated sacro bosco as zagajene šume or nurtured woodlands. Indeed, according to the dictionary of old words used in Dalmatian hinterland, zagajiti means to ‘raise or nurture through protection’ (Gusić and Gusić, 2004, p. 101).
All three known translations of the term sacro bosco before Kesterčanek implied a woodland that was strictly managed through protection (Tab. 1). Also, the term forbidden grove most accurately reflects the type of regulations that were related to these woodlands. The denomination sacred is indeed the correct translation of the Italian word sacro according to old Italian-English dictionaries (Baretti, 1771; Gisupanio, 1837) and could imply some connection with church or religion. This is why, perhaps, Meštrović et al. (2011) translated the term as church forests. However, in the mentioned proclamation and published regulations regarding sacred groves (Racolta delle leggi ed odrinanze…, 1834) there was no mention of the church.  In fact, in the Austrian period, protection and maintenance of forbidden groves was entrusted to local people, that is the village heads and village patrols, and the church was not involved in any way.20 Also, Baretti’s (1771) dictionary states that Italian word sacrare can mean to dedicate, which is confirmed by Cassell’s Latin-English dictionary (Marchant and Charles, 1953) which says that Latin word sacro among other mostly religious meanings can also mean to devote, give or allot (p. 496). Because of this, it is possible that Kesterčanek went for the most obvious translation of the word sacro but other cases of earlier translations do match the true meaning of the term better. Following this analysis, it is proposed that the term zabranjen gaj or forbidden grove/woodland should be used when referencing these woodlands (Fig. 4)
Forbidden groves in Šibenik area in Austrian period were no different than those that were established in the French period. For example, Oštrica peninsula and Prigrada area south of Šibenik were described as encircled with a dry-stone wall, although a damaged one.21  The vegetation here was divided between that which was already planted (è piantato) and that which will be planted (è da piantarti). The first category included unspecified oaks, juniper and ‘woodland in general’ and since it represented the common vegetation of the area, the term è piantato could also be understood as the vegetation that is already growing there. There is, however, no record of which specific species were considered for the new planting since in Oštrica woodland was already considered dense enough and for Prigrada it was stated only that species that provided firewood were needed.22
However, the cadastral plans and records of 1825 do not show any record of forbidden groves in these areas. As already mentioned, the forbidden groves in these two areas were first established by the French, so the renewal of regulations on forbidden groves issued by the Austrians implied the ones in Oštrica and Prigrada had to be re-established because they were devastated. If they had been re-established, however, strict regulations which excluded