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ŠUMARSKI LIST 7-8/2021 str. 41     <-- 41 -->        PDF

pasture and firewood collection would also mean the areas could not be used as municipal pastures, which is how they were recorded in the cadastral plans. It seems therefore that the paper regulations had little impact on the ground. This is supported by a document from 1848 which discussed woodlands of the whole Krapanj section, but also did not specifically mention Oštrica and Prigrada woodlands as being forbidden groves. It does mention, however, that the section had ‘genuine richness in the woodland of cape Oštrica’ and this was very important for villagers of Krapanj.23 The topographic map, based on the second military survey which was printed between 1851-1854, indeed shows most of Oštrica peninsula as well as a narrow strip along the sea in Prigrada area as a woodland (
Existing literature of forest history does not mention the existence of sacri boschi or forbidden groves in the Austrian period and it is believed much woodland was devastated then. Indeed, in 1835 the Austrian administration called upon municipalities to employ extra territorial guards to protect woodlands because of excessive damages and violations of regulations (Raccolta delle leggi…, 1845). However, the term sacro bosco is still mentioned in 1848 according to archival sources from Šibenik. That year, after a survey of islands in Zlarin municipalities, it was proposed that sacro bosco should be established on Prvić and Žirje islands because of the lack of firewood for local communities, whereas for Žirje island pines were considered because of their use in fishing.24 Therefore, forbidden groves did not disappear even by the middle of the 19th century. What did disappear in the second part of the 19th century, however, was the Italian language from the official use, and with the implementation of Croatian language in the documents, the term sacro bosco was abandoned. However, the forbidden groves themselves did not disappear but continued to exist under a different name with the change of language.
Namely, in 1876 the Law on the division of municipal lands was enacted by the Austrian government in an effort to tackle what they perceived was the destructive influence of municipal ownership over woodlands. This Law stipulated that municipal lands that were suitable for agriculture had to be divided between the people living in the municipality, while the remaining land, usually pastures and woodlands, would remain as it was. However, on those parcels that were in the cadastral survey designated as wooded pastures, foresters were supposed to establish ‘proper’ woodland, that is high forest. The establishment of woodland was supposed to be carried out by allowing natural regeneration of existing woodland and if necessary, reforestation. In order to achieve this, pasture and other types of exploitation had to be prohibited, at least until the stand had developed enough to resist the damage from animals, and the area had to be enclosed (Wessely, 1878; Šumarski list, 1905; Petrović, 1910). The term which was used from then on for the areas where woodland was supposed to be established is branjevina which translates as protected area (of woodland).25 In reports submitted by municipal forester in Šibenik, protected areas were listed separately from woodlands.26 Also, the perimeter of protected areas was supposed to be marked with piles of stones.27 Besides protection from exploitation, numerous reports show that protected areas are where most of reforestation was being carried out.28 These regulations which include prohibition of exploitation, demarcation with stones and reforestation are similar, if not identical, to the regulations concerning the establishment of forbidden groves from the earlier period and can most easily be understood as their continuation.
Closer examination of areas designated as woodland on the topographical map from the third military survey (1869-1887) shows that sometimes within them delineation lines were drawn (Fig. 5). These lines could have signified a different type of management of woodland. Differences between these delineated areas are more evident on the topographical map from the third military survey but produced in the scale of 1:75,000 as these maps showed details of the vegetation cover unlike those produced in the scale of 1:25,000 (Fig. 6). In Podi woodland the line stretching across the middle of woodland distinguishes an area depicted as covered with single trees from a more wooded area with groups of trees. On the other hand, in the woodland near Zlosela village the line delineates areas which had the same vegetation structure (depicted as scattered single trees).
A report from 1882 reveals that throughout Dalmatia 692 protected areas were established with the aim of renewing or establishing a woodland (Šumarski list, 1882). By 1905 it was reported that an area of 155,000 ha was put under protection, while pasture of goats was banned on 455,000 ha (Šumarski list, 1905). It was also mandatory by law that a fifth of the woodland area in each settlement was supposed to be under protection from exploitation. Despite this, it was not always the case and on Žirje island it was