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ŠUMARSKI LIST 7-8/2021 str. 45     <-- 45 -->        PDF

Population variability of scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Turkey according to the needle morphology
Varijabilnost populacija običnog bora (Pinus sylvestris L.) u Turskoj prema morfološkim obilježjima iglica
Arzu Ergül Bozkurt, Kamil Coşkunçelebi, Salih TerzioG˘LU
In the present study, needle variation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L., Pinaceae) populations in Turkey was investigated. From selected eight populations, a total of 1314 needles belonging to 206 trees were examined. Four morphological needle traits were measured and analyzed to describe the population diversity and differentiation. Analyzed morphological traits showed significant variability. The trees within populations differ significantly in all analyzed needle characteristics, while the differences between populations were significant for the three of four studied characteristics. Present findings revealed that needle length, needle width and the ratio of needle length to needle width showed clinal variation in response to altitudinal gradients. Populations from higher altitudes were characterized with the smaller and wider needles as compared to the populations from lower altitudes. The results of this study could be valuable baseline data for the development of more efficient management plans for this forest tree species.
Key words: Scots pine, population variability, needle characteristics, morphometric analysis, clinal variation
Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L., family Pinaceae) is one of the most important timber and forest tree species globally (Koprowski et al. 2012). It has a very wide distribution in Europe and Asia due to its high degree of ecological tolerance (Alemdağ 1967; Pehlivan 2010). The tree is tolerant to poor soils, drought, and frost. It is a pioneer species, able to colonize nutrient-poor soils in disturbed areas (Mátyás et al. 2004; Houston Durrant et al. 2016). Scots pine frequently grows in large single species stands in altitudes ranging from sea level up to 2600 MASL. However, across its huge range it may also be found in mixed stands with most of the boreal tree species of Europe and Asia.
Scots pine is the third-most dominant conifer tree species in Turkey (Kandemir and Mataracı 2018). Its distribution in Turkey extends from Pınarbaşı to Ayancık in the longitudinal, and Orhaneli to Kağızman in the latitudinal directions (Saatçioğlu 1944; Kayacık 1954; Pamay 1962). The geographical limits of the southeastern distribution of Scots pine have been reported in the Pınarbaşı district of the Kayseri province of Turkey (Demirci 2006; Pehlivan 2010). P.