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ŠUMARSKI LIST 11-12/2021 str. 78     <-- 78 -->        PDF

different than the impacts of a temporary loss of forest cover. Secondly, different policy and management responses are needed to achieve sustainability in the face of forest area versus forest cover losses (Wulder et al, 2020).
According to the same database, 65.19% of the territory the Federation of B&H is covered by forests, where 51.07% are broad-leaved and 14.11% are coniferous, while 60.12% of the Republic of Srpska is covered by forests, where 49.08% are broadleaved and 11.04% are coniferous. In the Brčko District, the forest covers 39.89%, of which broad-leaved forests cover 38.94%, and the coniferous forest only 0.95% (the Brčko District occupies a small, mostly urban territory, predominantly between 100-200 m above sea level) (Table 2).
According to the DLT Change database in the period 2015-2018, broad-leaved forest losses amounted to 55.22 km2, which is 0.22% of the total area covered under this type of forest. Coniferous forest losses in the same period amounted to 25.25 km2 or 0.37% in comparison with the initial year. Potential change among dominant leaf types is 2.38 km2 or 0.01% of total forest cover (Table 3).
FAO defines a forest as a land with tree crown cover (or equivalent stocking level) of more than 10 percent and area of more than 0.5 hectares (ha). The trees should be able to reach a minimum height of 5 meters (m) at maturity in situ. May consist either of closed forest formations where trees of various storeys and undergrowth cover a high proportion of the ground; or open forest formations with a continuous vegetation cover in which tree crown cover exceeds 10 percent. Young natural stands and all plantations established for forestry purposes which have yet to reach a crown density of 10 percent or tree height of 5 m are included under forest, as are areas normally forming part of the forest area which are temporarily unstocked as a result of human intervention or natural causes but which are expected to revert to forest (FAO, 1998).
FTY layer is derived through a spatial intersection of the two primary status layers TCD and DLT and excludes areas under agricultural use and in urban context. The FTY database shows a more intense trend of decreasing the forest area compared to the DLT database. Namely, in the period 2012-2018, a decrease in the area under forests was recorded in the amount of 4.78%, of which conifers accounted for 2.66% and broad-leaved trees for 2.13%. The ratio within forests is similar: broad-leaved forests increase from 77.7% in 2012 to 80.47% in 2018, while conifers decrease from 13.87% in 2012 to 11.21% in 2018 (Table 4).
By overlapping the raster layers EU DEMv1.1 and FTY 2018, the spatial distribution of forest types by altitude zones has been obtained (Figures 1 and 2). About 75% of the territory of B&H is below 1000 m and 25% above. As it could be expected, broad-leaved forests dominate at lower