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ŠUMARSKI LIST 11-12/2021 str. 81     <-- 81 -->        PDF

the spread of broad-leaved forest over the transitional woodland / shrub was 152.33 km2. Therefore, the losses are covered with 75%, i.e. the net losses amount to 50.4 km2. It is noteworthy that clear cutting of forest (3.1-3.2.4) far exceeds replanting (3.2.4-3.1), however the slow regrowth of forestry is more difficult to map consistently. The next biggest cause of forest losses are fires, to which broad-leaved forests are also most exposed. The conversion of this type into the burnt area (3.1.1-3.3.4) increases from period to period: in the first period broad-leaved forest was affected by fires in an area of 5.68 km2, in the second 12.21 km2 and in the third 14.1 km2.
The causes of forest losses can be different: human made (illegal logging, over-exploitation of wood resources, etc.), plant diseases, fires etc. All the recorded fires have occurred in the south of the country, in the region of Herzegovina, known for its Mediterranean climate with high temperatures and low rainfall in the summer season. The most affected zones have occurred within Trebinje city local area and Herzegovina-Neretva canton (Drašković et al, 2020a).
Internal conversion from one type of forest to another has not been very common. In the first period, 6.05 km2 have been noted (the conversion of the broad-leaved forest to mixed in the amount of 3.27 km2 and of the mixed to the coniferous with 2.78 km2), in the second period 2.78 km2 (broad-leaved to coniferous 0.17 km2 and mixed to coniferous 2.61 km2), and in the third period only 0.31 km2 (coniferous to mixed). This is not an actual loss, since one type of forest has been replaced by another.
Table 8 shows the processes that cause the forest losses have been related to the conversion of forests into transitional woodland / shrub.5 In the first period, the conversion of forests into transitional woodland / shrub has been 93.09%, in the second 42.6% and in the third 69.25% of all the changes.
The second biggest cause of forest losses is related to fires. During the first period, the conversion of forests into burnt areas has included 3.1%, in the second 42.12% and in the third 21.21% of total losses. This class (3.3.4) is applicable for recent burns of forest (classes 3.1.x) still visible in the satellite images.