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that the survival potential of P. serotina in forests might be greater than the seedling survival potential of native trees (3.9 ± 1.2% against 0.03% for Acer platanoides L. and A. pseudoplatanus L., 0.02% Q. petraea and none of F. sylvatica L.; Dyderski and Jagodziński, 2019a); this could contribute to future decline in native tree diversity.
According to our results, which indicate species-specific patterns, we would like to suggest that, when studying invasive species, conclusions not be based on habitat characteristics alone, particularly not on remote sensing alone. We need to distinguish between factors related to the invasiveness of the species, the susceptibility of the ecosystem, and the introduction effort mediated by humans. Additionally, stochastic events may also influence invasions (Dyderski and Jagodziński, 2019b). This is of prime importance for preventing further spread of alien species in general. However, at the same time, identifying these factors allows us to focus on a particular species to consider possible novel environmental pressures and how the species might respond to these.
We would like to thank Andrej Kosednar for his help with field work. We are grateful to two anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments.
The study was partly supported by the Slovene Ministry of Higher Education, Science and Technology within research programs P1-0403 and J1-2457.
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