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ŠUMARSKI LIST 7-8/2022 str. 46     <-- 46 -->        PDF

Pine forests in Bosnia and Herzegovina, where Scots and Austrian pines are predominant species (> 95%), account for 136,000 ha or 8% of the area of high forests. The growing stock in pine forests amounts to 19,682,000 m3 and wood increment to 582,000 m3 (Čabaravdić et al. 2016). Austrian pine range of distribution includes southern Europe, northwestern Africa, and Asia Minor. Scots pine has a much more extensive range of distribution and covers the area of Europe and northern Asia. Parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina are included both in the Scots pine and Austrian pine ranges of distribution. There are also mixed stands of these tree species.
According to Speer (2010), dendrochronology is one of the most important techniques used to record natural processes and monitor human-caused changes in the environment. Dendrochronology provides temporal studies of the events stored in the structure of tree rings or dated using tree rings. The tree has become an instrument for monitoring the state of the environment since it provides a long-term bioindication that extends throughout its life. According to Worbes (2004), the analysis of tree rings significantly extends the period of tracking and monitoring back in the past and can be considered retrospective biomonitoring.
Dendrochronology as a scientific discipline provides tree-ring data that can be of great assistance in other scientific disciplines that have not used that data before. By combining dendrochronology with other scientific disciplines, several dendrochronology subdisciplines have been developed. One of the most important is dendroecology. The research field of dendroecology was developed by Theodor Hartig and Robert Hartig in Germany in the late 1800s (Schweingruber 1996). According to Amoroso et al. (2017), dendroecology is focused on how climate and other factors, directly and indirectly, influenced past tree-growth patterns. Dendroecological studies have fundamentally shaped contemporary views of forest ecology and forest dynamics of primarily temperate forests. The past few decades have seen a sharp increase in the rate of publishing dendroecological studies that have helped adapt existing forest management strategies to respond to and mitigate current and future global environmental changes.
Scots and Austrian pine species have been the research subject of many dendrochronological and dendroecological studies in Europe and the Balkans. Their results proved that these species are valuable and useful in dendroclimatological and dendroecological analyses (Cedro 2006; Kochanowski and Bednarz 2007; Poljanšek et al. 2012; Helama et al. 2014; Smiljanić et al. 2014; Stajić et al. 2020; Miklić et al. 2021).
This study aimed to establish chronologies of autochthonous pine species (Scots and Austrian pines) for the Zavidovići-Teslić area in central Bosnia and Herzegovina, analyze the influence of climatic variables on the tree-ring formation and identify differences between pine species in terms of the effects of climatic parameters.
Study Area – Područje istraživanja
The influence of climatic factors on diameter growth, i.e. the formation of tree rings in Scots and Austrian pine trees, was investigated in central Bosnia and Herzegovina, in the Zavidovići-Teslić area, which belongs to ​​the Inner Dinarides. According to the Ecological-Vegetation Regionalisation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Stefanović et al. 1983), the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina is divided into four relatively homogeneous areas: Pannonian, Transitional Illyrian-Moesian, Inner Dinarides, and Mediterranean-Dinaric. The Inner Dinarides is divided into six areas, one of which is the Zavidovići-Teslić area (Figure 1). The area is characterized by quite heterogeneous orographic conditions. It is located in a hilly-mountainous belt from 250 to 1320 m above sea level. During most of the year, the area has a modified humid continental climate. From July to August, there is a stronger influence of the Mediterranean climate. The growing season lasts from 180 to 190 days. The area belongs to the central Bosnian ophiolite zone with a very pronounced relief in which serpentinized peridotites, igneous rocks, and cherts predominate, and limestones are far less represented.
Scots and Austrian pines are native to the study area of the Zavidovići-Teslić, i.e. the study area is part of the range of distribution of both Scots and Austrian pine in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Fukarek 1958; Stefanović 1958). The fact that Scots and Austrian pine communities are present here is of particular importance for this research.
The research was conducted on five sites or five experimental areas with three different associations. The first site comprises the association of Abieti-Fagetum serpentinicum Beus 1980 on eutric cambisol overlaying serpentinites. Scots pine trees attain impressive heights at this site, but as a community of beech and fir grows in the understorey, Scots pine has no perspective here. The second site comprises the association of Erico-Pinetum nigrae serpentinicum Stef. 1962 on colluvium over peridotite. Austrian pine is the main edifying species, while sessile oak (Quercus petraea) often occurs in the understoreys. Association Pinetum sylvestris-nigrae Pavl. 1951 on eutric ranker over peridotite occurs at the third and fourth and eutric cambisol over peridotite at the fifth site. Austrian and Scots