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ŠUMARSKI LIST 9-10/2022 str. 50     <-- 50 -->        PDF

in entity of Republic of Srpska (RS) is around 9.4 m/ha. Accessibility of the high forests with primary forest traffic infrastructure is 11.6 m/ha. Average density of the primary forest traffic infrastructure is 9.28 m/ha in public forests (Sokolović and Bajrić 2013a, Anon 2017, Anon 2019).
Intensive forest management requires density of forest roads over 30 m/ha (Dobre 1995). The ground skidding is the most common timber extraction method in BIH (Marčeta et al. 2014). Density of forest roads depends on extraction type and it should be 25 m/ha for ground skidding in Europe (Dykstra and Heinrich 1996). Recent research in RS showed that the accessibility in some cases could be significantly higher than in official documents and can rise up to 14 m/ha (Potočnik et al. 2013), considering both aspects, production, and terrain characteristics in hilly area.
Pentek et al. (2014) determined the primary forest accessibility from 5 m/ha in karst region to 15 m/ha in mountainous region, and around 11 m/ha in hilly region. Actual density of forest, fire and public roads in Slovenia is around 25 m/ha (Krč and Beguš 2013). Trajanov et al. (2015) determined that primary forest accessibility is 13.43 m/ha in Northern Macedonia. Total primary forest accessibility is around 27 m/ha by forest roads in public forests of Republic of Serbia (Anon 2018). The average forest accessibility is 45 m/ha by forest roads in Austria (Ghaffarian et al. 2009, Findeis 2016).
The actual accessibility of the forest, to be more precise, public forests in RS is lower than in some neighbouring countries and it does not provide an opportunity for sustainable utilisation, regeneration and protection. The consequence of that is the fact that timber harvesting is carried out on a reduced area (Anon 2011). Accessibility of the forests in RS should be improved and it is necessary to approach to the planning of new forest roads. This action consists of planning of primary forest accessibility and designing of new forest roads.
The aim of planning of forest roads is achieving targeted density of forest roads from the point of intensity of forest management, terrain and stand conditions to reduce the average extraction distance. That can be achieved by planning of new routes of the forest roads in suitable areas which are not enough accessible.
General steps in improving of forest accessibility are:
1. analysis of actual primary forest accessibility,
2. defining of targeted forest density of primary forest traffic infrastructure based on forest management intensity and terrain conditions,
3. analysis of achieved primary forest accessibility.
In this study, these tasks will be implemented into two different relief areas and types of high forests.
In high forests in RS (61 % of total area of public forests), there are about 5,440.50 km of forest roads and according to it, high forests belong to the most accessible forest category (Anon 2017). High forests with natural regeneration are usually managed by the group-selection management system. The application of this management system forms various age-structured and mixed stands. In this investigation for optimization of accessibility in hilly and mountainous high forests, based on their timber production, terrain and stand characteristics and intensity of forest management, two Management Units (MU), Prosara and Bobija-