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ŠUMARSKI LIST 1-2/2023 str. 67     <-- 67 -->        PDF

The morphological and chemical variability of Turkish Hazel (Corylus colurna L.) fruits in Turkey
Morfološka i kemijska varijabilnost plodova medvjeđe lijeske (Corylus colurna L.) na području Turske
Mehmet Kalkan, Mustafa Yilmaz, Rasim Alper Oral
Turkish hazel (Corylus colurna L.) is naturally distributed in southeast Europe, Anatolia, the Caucasus and Western Himalayas. In Turkey, there are many isolated populations in the Black Sea, Marmara, Aegean, and Central Anatolian Regions. Many of the small populations in Turkey are endangered. In this study, the morphological and chemical characteristics of Turkish hazelnut fruits collected from seven populations were researched. In this regard, considering the morphological characteristics of fruits and kernels, significant differences were observed between the populations. Length, width, thickness, and weight averages were 15.98 mm, 15.38 mm, 12.00 mm and 1.4651 g in the fruits, and 13.03 mm, 11.22 mm, 7.64 mm and 0.5047 g in the kernels, respectively. The average shell thickness was 1.92 mm, shell weight was 0.9604 g, and kernel ratio was 35.16%. Statistically significant differences were found out between the populations whose chemical contents were analyzed. As a result of the analysis, the average fat content, protein, starch, and ash were 64.1%, 15.9%, 10.2 g, and 2.5%, respectively. According to the averages in the obtained fatty acids, the main fatty acids were oleic acid (79.53%), linoleic acid (11.34%), palmitic acid (5.68%), and stearic acid (2.03%), while the rest of other oils were found in trace amounts. Overall, our results suggest that the information relating to morphological and chemical characteristics of Turkish hazelnut can be useful for discriminating among populations.
Key words: hazel, hazelnut, fruits, morphometric analysis, chemical analysis, hazelnut oil
Turkish hazel or Turkish filbert (Corylus colurna L.) is a deciduous, monecious, self-incompatible, wind-pollinated species belonging to the Betulaceae family. The species is native to southeast Europe and southwest Asia, from the Balkans through northern Turkey to northern Iran, and in Western Himalayas. In addition, this hazel species is widely grown as an ornamental tree in Europe and the USA for centuries. In Turkey it can be found in the Balıkesir, Bolu, Ankara, Zonguldak, Kastamonu, Rize and Trabzon regions (Temel et al. 2017; Aksoy 2018). In the world literature Turkish hazel is also called Turkish filbert, tree hazelnut, bear hazelnut, Balkan hazelnut, and rock hazelnut (Yaltırık 1993).
Turkish hazel is the largest species of hazel with a single-trunk reaching a height of 15-25 m. The leaves of this hazel species are broad-ovoid, heart-shaped at the bottom, and pointed at the tip, 6–15 cm long and 5–13 cm across. The leaf margins are sharply double-serrate or coarse, sometimes shallowly lobed. The unisexual flowers are bloom in early spring before the leaves. The male catkins are pale yellow and 5–10 cm long, and the female flowers are very