DIGITALNA ARHIVA ŠUMARSKOG LISTA
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|ŠUMARSKI LIST 7-8/2023 str. 56 <-- 56 --> PDF|
(Rawat and Kumar 2015). In the context of outdated, decades-old systems and surveys, land management and knowledge of acceptable vegetation resources are not viable. Economic development of any country or region depends on the regulation of land administration and land-legal relations since it enhances the possibility of future investments, which are extremely challenging in situations where the system is entirely out of date and disorganized (Macanović and Đurić 2018).
The lack of up-to-dateness and inconsistency of the cadastral records that are under the jurisdiction of the Republic Administration for Geodetic and Property-Legal Affairs with the actual situation is shown by the simple fact that there is a census cadastre in certain parts of it. The census cadastre is still in force in 9 local self-governance units, i.e. in 107 cadastral municipalities, representing about 7.3% of the entire territory of the Republic of Srpska, which is one of two separate entities of the state BiH (Bosnia and Herzegovina). On the other hand, the land cadastre based on the Austro-Hungarian survey from the 19th century is still present in some municipalities in this entity (RUGIPP 2021).
In the Republic of Srpska, efforts are being made to establish a real estate cadastre covering the entire country. The establishment of the real estate cadastre as a unique record is carried out through the process of public presentation of data on real estate and the holders of those rights. The costly and time-consuming process is expected to result in a single record that enables it to transfer real estate in legal transactions. It is expected to establish a real estate cadastre on approximately 64.1% of the Republic of Srpska territory by 2025 (RUGIPP 2021).
To monitor the real state of resources, the possibilities of using unconventional, modern LULC monitoring systems, such as remote sensing (Li et al. 2019) and Sentinel-2 images (Dobrinić et al. 2019; Phiri et al. 2020) are being investigated. The public remote sensing data are based on a policy of open access and play a crucial role in monitoring changes in forest resources as well as other ecosystem processes, especially in developing countries with limited access to remote sensing data (Turner et al. 2015).
Copernicus enables the use of data from a constellation of satellites (Sentinel) and other missions (commercial and public satellites). The launch of Sentinel-1A in 2014 (Torres and Davidson 2019) initiated the process of establishing a complete constellation of 20 satellites in orbit by 2030. Today, there are six Sentinel missions. Each mission focuses on a different aspect of Earth observation; Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Land monitoring, and the data is of use in many applications (The European Space Agency 2022). Copernicus’s services are divided into six thematic areas: services for land management, services for the marine environment, services related to the atmosphere, services to aid emergency response, services associated with security, and services related to climate change (Aschbacher 2017). Studies (Barakat et al. 2018; Bucha et al. 2021; Jovanović et al. 2021; Kovačević et al. 2020; Puletti et al. 2018; Svoboda et al. 2022) demonstrate the manner of using Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 for investigating losing or expanding forest areas in the reference regions. In the study (Szostak et al. 2018), remote sensing was applied to depict the discrepancy between official records and actual conditions, and the studies (Kabadayi et al. 2022; Stefanski et al. 2014; Visockiene et al. 2019) demonstrate the use of remote sensing for detecting abandoned agricultural land. Sentinel-2 satellites have a wide range of potential applications in forestry and agriculture (Segarra et al. 2020) because of their unique geographical, temporal, and spectral capabilities.
The Sentinel-2 mission, created as part of the Copernicus program, consists of two polar-orbiting satellites: Sentinel-2A and Sentinel-2B, which are located at a mean altitude of 786 km and placed in the same sun-synchronous orbit, phased at 180° to each other (European Space Agency 2012). The satellites are equipped with MSI (MultiSpectral Instrument) (Gascon et al. 2017). Up to 1.6 TB of data are collected, stored, and retrieved by MSI carriers per orbit. The data is delivered to the ground stations. The ground segment consists of a flight control section and a section for downloading, processing, and distributing MSI images. There are 13 spectral channels and spatial resolutions of 10 m, 20 m, and 60 m, with a wide swath width of 290 km. The time resolution is 10 days at the equator with one satellite, and 5 days with 2 satellites under cloud-free conditions, resulting in 2-3 days at mid-latitudes (Drusch et al. 2012). The environmental monitoring program using the constellation Sentinel - 2 images is changing the way issues related to climate change and ordinary life are managed, understood, and solved. Owing to this mission, it is also possible to monitor certain variables such as chlorophyll and water content in leaves, and leaf surface index. It is also possible to use data to monitor the movement of water courses and map risks and disasters.
In order to provide harmonization with the strategic decisions of the EU (European Union), where energy and climate frameworks foresee an increase in the share of energy production from renewable sources to 32% by 2030, a better assessment of forest areas should be the first and probably the most important. Moreover, continuous forest and shrub growth outside of actively managed forests must be included in the carbon storage accounting (EU Regulation 2018/841) (Bucha et al. 2021). In Europe, and particularly in its eastern and central regions, there was a trend of forest area expansion by 0.17 million km2 between 1990 and 2010 (FAO UN 2010) and a slight decrease in expansion from 2010 to 2020 (FAO UN 2020). The expansion of forests is the result of afforestation and the natural expansion of