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morphometric data collected from various field trials and natural populations. There were no suggestions on biochemical or oxidative stress parameters as possible source of valuable data on genetic diversity and monitoring systems. Although detailed in plot design and morphometric analysis dataset needed for successful genetic monitoring of Q.robur (among others), in searched references on forest genetic monitoring there is no information on what exact molecular or biochemical/oxidative stress marker system might be used on pedunculate oak and others species as well (Fussi et al., 2016; Kavaliauskas et al., 2018; Bajc et al., 2020). This knowledge gap opens the space for expanding genetic monitoring methodology of forest tree species with biochemical parameters which will provide unique species-specific and landscape-specific information on the adaptation to climate change capacity of measured species population on site.
Obtained results may help to explain differences in biochemical responses to abiotic stresses of pedunculate oak trees of different microsites and on the level of varieties within the single forest complex and provide us with valuable information about intra-species variability in drought resistance (early vs late). Therefore, this can be an important tool for the improvement of breeding strategies and artificial regeneration plans considering current circumstances and, more important, future climate scenarios. Given the results, the long-term measurement of oxidative stress parameters of oak trees on individual and population level is necessary in order to get clearer picture of what kind of changes happen on the molecular level. These measurements can also be useful in short term genetic monitoring of oak trees set up in semi-controlled and controlled conditions. This way it would be possible to get the insight into the exact genetic capacity of tree species regarding their abiotic stress resilience on certain microsites within the landscape. Considering all discussed results, it seems that oxidative stress parameters might be of species-specific significance and therefore, future genetic monitoring strategies should determine which of them are the most informative ones.
In addition, taking into consideration the significant amount of data presented in the discussion part, the next stage of forest genetic monitoring methodology development is to select oxidative stress parameters, physiological and biochemical data, which gave the most valuable information on diversity on individual and population level. Many of the mentioned molecular marker system, such as SSR, are selective neutral and have a disadvantage in framing a picture on a situational and short historical plasticity of the selected species in the landscape. This information is also very important for future breeding and conservation strategies and initiatives of valuable species like pedunculate oak, especially for small-scale forest management and planning.
This paper was carried out within the program of monitoring the impact of cross-border air pollution in forest ecosystems on the territory of AP Vojvodina in 2023 - financed by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management of the Republic of Serbia and supported by the PROMIS project entitled “MYCOCLIMART” No. 6066613 funded by the Science Fund of the Republic of Serbia. We would also like to thank Prof.Dr. Boris Popović, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Novi Sad, for comments significant for shaping of the discussion part of the paper. We would also like to thank Ms Gorana Kukobat, a court interpreter for the English language, for proofreading the translated version of this paper. FAO shall not be responsible for the content or any business activity related to this paper.
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