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ŠUMARSKI LIST 7-8/2023 str. 90     <-- 90 -->        PDF

introduction of this species into the culture, but the strategy failed in binding loose sand due to afforestation in lines (Bura, 1969). As the local population did not always comply with the ban on forest cutting and grazing, considerable damage was caused to the landscape. During this phase, which lasted until the abolition of the Banat military border in 1872, 4,648 ha area was covered by new forest (Milenković et al., 2018).
• The third afforestation period (1872−1878) – Abolition of the military border and the Wessely period:
In 1872, the Deliblato Sands falls under the administration of the Ministry of Finance (Bura, 1969). The Military Ministry from Vienna sends Joseph Wessely to conduct detailed studies of the area and improve the “flying sand” stabilization process. In 1873, Wessely returns to Vienna and publishes his field research on “European flying sand and its cultivation” (Wessely, 1873), which became the basis for the subsequent Deliblato Sands afforestation. During this period, 470 ha were covered with poplars (Populus alba L., Populus nigra L., Populus tremula L.) and pines (Pinus nigra J. F. Arnold, Pinus sylvestris L.) (Milenković et al., 2018; Table 2.).
• The fourth afforestation period (1878−1898) – Transfer of administration to Romania and establishment of forestry practice:
In 1878, all afforestation operations were placed under the jurisdiction of the Forestry Administration in Orșova with the directorate in Lugoj (a small town in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until 1918 when it became part of Romania). This was the first time in the history of Deliblato Sands that only foresters were engaged in sand binding efforts, which led to the greatest results. A new method of binding sand was established and applied in 1883, whereby juniper scrub (Juniperus communis L.) was laid down on open sandy areas, black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) was planted and different species of grass were sown. This sand binding technique was the most successful and largely eradicated the “flying sand”. Robinia pseudoacacia L., Populus sp., Pinus sp., were mostly planted, along with Quercus sp., Morus sp., Juglans nigra L. (Bura, 1969; Table 2.), which covered 3,505 ha (Milenković et al., 2018). At the end of this afforestation phase, some parts of Deliblato Sands were designated for pastures.
• The fifth afforestation period (1898–1918) – Establishment of winegrowing colonies and the first protected Natural Monuments:
From 1898 onward, all work on Deliblato Sands is conducted by the Ministry of Agriculture − Department for Colonization. Due to the appearance of the grapevine pest