|Croatian forests Ltd - feudal lord or law enforcer?|
We should never be concerned about the themes and topicality of this column of Forestry Journal. Every now and then the media reports on the latest misunderstandings and even conflicts between the forestry profession and amateur associations which imagine that they know everything about forestry. Interestingly, they never meddle in surgery, for example. The Voice of Istria recently wrote: The battle of the Motovun Forest continues - Truffle hunting people strike back: The company Croatian Forests Ltd behaves like a feudal lord! This topic will be dealt with more extensively on the basis of exact data in one of the columns of the next double issue of Forestry Journal.
Feudalism is a form of social system that prevailed in the Middle and part of the New Age and was abolished in 1848. A feudal lord was a land owner who had other people working for him. Is the company Croatian Forests Ltd the owner of the land - forest and does it match these criteria? To answer these questions we should first consult the law, in this case the Forest Law. Article 2 (1) of the said Law states: Forests and forest land are natural goods of interest to the Republic of Croatia and enjoy its particular protection. In the same article (3) it is stated that the Government of the Republic of Croatia manages forests and forest land in the interest of the Republic of Croatia according to the principles listed further on. Article 3 (1) states: Forests and forest land constitute specific forest wealth and together with non-market and market forest functions dictate a particular manner of planning, management and usage according to the principles of sustainable forest management. (2) Sustainable management of forests means using forests and forest land in the manner and to the extent to which it maintains its biodiversity, productivity, regeneration capacity, vitality and potential to, now and in the future, fulfil the relevant ecological, economic and social functions locally, nationally and globally without inflicting harm to other ecosystems. The Croatian forestry profession has applied the principle of sustainability to Croatian forests for over 250 years. In addition to commercial forest functions (production of wood assortments, production of forest reproductive material and production of non-wood forest products), we should bear in mind that it also ensures its non-market functions listed in article 4 (1) to (9). Therefore, management of this most complex ecosystem excludes amateurism and interest groups! Sadly and illogically, but true, politics which should strictly enforce the Law, is more often inclined to them than to the profession.
In view of what was said above about the forest as specific forest wealth, it is logical that it should operatively be managed by a specific legal entity which has the necessary infrastructure, equipment and highly skilled personnel in particular. As for highly skilled personnel, we repeatedly point out that it was decided no later than 19th century that forests should be managed by academically educated experts. Furthermore, the university forestry education in Croatia was established as early as 20th October 1898. It is logical, therefore, that the Government of the Republic of Croatia entrusted the company Croatian Forests Ltd, a public forest owner which it founded, with forest planning and management. Article 44 (1) states: The public forest owner and Institution (in case of protected forests) are obliged by law to ensure the protection of forests and forest land owned by the Republic of Croatia from unlawful appropriation, use and other illegal activities, as well as enforce the forest order. Clearly, everything is regulated by law: hence, the company Croatian Forests Ltd is the law enforcer and by no means a feudal lord. Yet, when we discuss the situation in our State, starting from social relations, economy and excessive import of “anything and everything”, we all swear by the legal State, but only when it is in our favour, while public interest is of no concern whatsoever.
|ORIGINAL SCIENTIFIC PAPERS|
|Mario Ančić, Renata Pernar, Milan Bajić, Andrija Krtalić, Ante Seletković, Dubravko Gajski, Jelena Kolić|| UDK 630*120 (001)
|Spectral signatures (endmembers) some of forest species in the Republic of Croatia|
All objects reflect, absorb or emit electromagnetic radiation depending on the composition, creating unique patterns called spectral signatures or endemembers. Pure spectral samples are defined in ideal field or laboratory conditions, where the spectrum of reflection is obtained using a spectroradiometer focused on one surface. According to researches, most spectral-pure samples refer to mineral exploration. Spectral signatures of vegetation, unlike minerals, are dynamic (in spectral, spatial and temporal resolution), considerably demanding for collecting and documenting, and need to be incorporated with caution in spectral libraries. There are several spectral libraries (bigger and smaller) that are organized by chapters which consist of samples that are adequately reviewed and documented to determine the spectrum quality. In this study, the spectral signatures for several species in Croatia were isolated: Oak (Quercus robur L.), Common Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), Silver fir (Abies alba Mill.), Norway spruce (Picea abies L.), White-berried mistletoe (Viscum album L. ssp. Abietis (Weisb.)) and Yellow Mistletoe (Loranthus europaeus Jacq.). The purpose of the research was to establish a spectral library for future research into hyperspectral scanners for tree species detection.
For collecting spectral signatures, the hyperspectral line scanner ImSpector V9 was used to capture the visible and near infrared spectrum (430-900 nm). In addition, the FODIS solar radiation sensor was used to obtain the average value of the solar insolation at the time of recording. Recording was performed under controlled conditions. Samples were placed on the circular base with the indicated division for every 45 degrees exactly in the center of the optical axis of the scanner and were rotated circularly. Spectral images were then processed in ImageJ software where data was extracted for further analysis.
After calculation of the mean values by species, comparisons were made between species. The obtained results showed overlaps in the visible part of the spectrum. In the near infrared part of the spectrum they differentiate from one another, apropos the results show that there is a difference between the spectral curves of the samples.
The research carried out defines sampling procedures and obtained spectral signatures for the investigated species. Spectral signatures have become part of the spectral library, and the most significant result of the research is the ability to detect the species on hyperspectral images.
Key words: spectral signatures (endmembers); pedunculate oak; common beech; silver fir; Norway spruce; white-berried mistletoe; yellow mistletoe.
ANČIĆ, Mario ŠL
PERNAR, Renata ŠL
SELETKOVIĆ, Ante ŠL
|Goran Gužvica, Monika Petković, Marko Augustinović, Lidija Šver|| UDK 630* 153
(Canis aureus) (001)
|Research of golden jackal (Canis aureus) in the Nature park Lonjsko polje by acoustic and camera traps methods|
Golden jackal (Canis aureus Linné, 1758) belongs to the family Canidae, which is characterized by opportunism and life in a pack. The rapid dispersion of golden jackal, as well as the increase of population density, indicates a high degree of ability of this species to adjust to different habitat conditions. Only 15 years ago, the appearance of the golden jackal in the Lonjsko polje Nature Park (NP) was sporadic. Today, territorial packs in this area are widespread and confirmed.
Lonjsko Polje NP is located in the alluvial plain of the central Sava river basin, with mosaics of different habitats typical for flooded areas such as flooded forests, marshes, swamps, meadows and agricultural lands. Except insects, which make a significant proportion of fauna of this area, and mammal species related to aquatic and terrestrial habitats, more than 70% of all bird species recorded in Croatia inhabit NP Lonjsko polje. Small rodents, insects, birds and bird eggs, are highly represented in the diet of golden jackals.
During the research period from 2012 to 2015, the minimum number and minimum density of golden jackal territorial packs were estimated in the area of Lonjsko polje NP by acoustic and camera trap methods.
Using the acoustic (playback) method, we confirmed the existence of 14 territorial packs in Lonjsko polje NP (Figure 1). From each calling station a recorded group yip-howl was broadcasted, and the GPS locations where the jackal’s response was heard, were recorded. For the calculation of the packs territory, around each recorded GPS location, the circle of 1.8 and 2 km radius was created. Outside of this radius human ear is not able to hear the sound of golden jackals howling. For the pack number estimation Point Cluster and Heatmap analysis in Q GIS 3.4. were used. By the use of the Q GIS function “Dissolve” in the Geoprocessing tools the total effective area of the response of the packs was calculated and it ranged from 186.30 to 214.50 km2. The minimum density of territorial packs per 10 km2 was calculated as a ratio of the number of packs and the total area of response of jackals and ranged from 0.65 to 0.75 packs per 10 km2. If compared to other areas in Croatia, the territorial density of the jackal packs estimated by the acoustic method in the area of NP Lonjsko Polje was slightly smaller. This is probably due to land unavailability caused by floods which impacts the pattern of space use of animals.
As part of this research, in the period from 2012 to 2015, five camera traps had been set and were afterwards periodically relocated to the places where the occurrence of golden jackals was expected. The golden jackal was recorded on 437 (8.8% from all photos with recorded animal or humans; Figure 3) photos or video clips. After the removal of the triplicates, 336 events of golden jackal photos or video clips were confirmed (Table 1). Without distinguishing individuals from each other, altogether, 359 individuals were recorded. In 94.64% of all events, only one individual was recorded. The largest number of individuals, 5 individuals on the same photo/video clip, was recorded in 0.30% of events. To analyze daily/night/twilight activity and circadian rhythm, photos/videos were sorted by date and time in to 3 categories: day, night and twilight (Figure 4). Student’s T-test for two variables confirmed the highest activity of golden jackal during the night (73.51% from all events, p <0.01) and twilight (19.64%, p <0.05). Daily activity was recorded as well (6.82% from all events). The maximum number of events was recorded between 3 and 5 AM. During the day, in the four years of application of the camera trap method, a photo of the jackal was never taken between 2 and 4 PM and 5 and 6 PM. Golden jackal exploits the resources out coming from human activities, especially in the areas inhabited by humans. However, if mosaics of cultivated areas are a dominant habitat type, where prey is abundant but the possibility of daytime cover is limited, the jackal mostly move at night, reducing the risk of encountering humans. Hence, the high incidence of nocturnal photographs of golden jackal is probably the consequence of the prevailing human-dominated landscape, the presence of large areas of wet meadows in the Nature Park Lonjsko Polje and the increased risk of suffering due to human activities (traffic, hunting, direct persecution).
Key words: golden jackal; Canis aureus; number and packs density; camera traps; acoustic method; Lonjsko polje NP
|Danijela Miljković, Dijana Čortan|| UDK 630* 164 (001)
|Morphometric and morphological analysis of Populus nigra L. leaves in flooded regions|
Human activity induced global changes in nature, particularly the flooding regime, which is a stress factor affecting wetland ecosystems. Knowledge of plant strategies of wetland vegetation across a range of flooding gradients is therefore very important. Natural flooding events are increasing as a consequence of constant climate changes. This research was focused on the area of Special Nature Reserve “Gornje Podunavlje” which represents a complex of peculiar marshland, originating from former vast inundated parts of the Danube basin. We have selected samples located on both sides of the embankment in the defended and in the flooded area. The main aim is the assessment of Populus nigra L. riparian tree leaf morphological traits variability (centroid size, shape, developmental instability, specific leaf area and petiole lenght) between two habitats (flooded and not flooded). The geometric morphometry methods were applied to provide visual representation of differences in the leaf shape. We employed leaf composite index indices of fluctuating asymetry as a measure of developmental instability. A statistically significant impact of flooding was obtained only for the leaf geometric size and shape, so these traits could be an indicator of flooding as suboptimal environmental conditions.
Key words: riparian tree species; Populus nigra L.; leaf developmental instability; leaf shape; flooding tolerant; Danube basin
|Velid Halilović, Jusuf Musić, Jelena Knežević, Mario Šarić, Besim Balić, Dalibor Ballian|| UDK 630* 360 +462 (001)
|Research of mechanical damage on fir trees and other tree species during exploitation – Case forestry “Glamoč“|
Mechanisation used in forest utilisation has an impact on the occurrence of damage in stand and on forest land. The research in this work had the objective of determining damage on fir trees and other tree species during felling and processing of trees and their skidding using the forest cable-skidder. The research wasconducted in mixed beech and fir forests in the area of FMA “Glamočko”, M.U. “Hrbinje-Kujača”. The following data were gathered on damaged trees: tree type, breast height diameter, economic importance of the tree, amount of damage, location of damage, cause of damage, types of damage. Damage was recorded on a total of 305 trees, 133 trees of silver fir (Abies alba), 130 trees of European beech (Fagus sylvatica), 33 trees of European spruce (Picea abies), 8 trees of rowan/mountain-ash (Sorbusaucuparia) and one tree of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus). The overall damage intensity was 18.7%, but together with the old damages, the overall number of ‘wounds’ is 496. According to this, when the old damage isalso considered, then the intensity of damage amounts to 30.6%. The largest amount of damage is in the diameter sub-class ranging from 10 to 14.99 cm. According to the cause of damage, the largest amount of damage occurred during the wood extraction phase (217 trees), while during the felling phase, 88 trees or 29% were damaged. Since the wood extraction phase is divided into the winching and skidding phases, the total number of damaged trees during the winching phase amounted to 157 or 52%, while during the skidding phase, the number of damaged trees was 60 or 19%. To reduce damage to the trees during following operations in forest utilisation, it is necessary to perform more frequent training of all employees working on forest utilisation, to increase controls in execution of operations during forest utilisation, modernise machines used during forest exploitation, and in quality manner open compartments with forest road infrastructure.
Key words: fir; trees; felling; wood extraction; damage
|Hanife Erdogan Genç, Ali Ömer Üçler|| UDK 630* 232.3 (001)
|Effects of different treatments on seed dormancy breaking and germination in Acer cappadocicum Gleditsch var. cappadocicum|
This study was carried out to determine effects of different pretreatment on seed germination and to overcome dormancy in Acer cappadocicum seeds. The seeds were collected in 2008 three times with aproximately 15-days intervals. In order to overcome dormancy, several germination treatments were applied. The treatments were (1) different seed collection time, (2)soaking in water, (3) cold-moist stratification and (4) GA3 (gibberellic acid) application. The treated seeds were germinated in growing chamber at 5 0C and in greenhouse conditions. This research showed that seeds of Acer cappadocicum exhibit physiological dormancy and require stratification period to overcome seed dormancy. The highest germination percentage in the growing chamber subjected to GA3 process after eight weeks of stratification treatment was 62 % for Acer cappadocicum seeds. The highest germination percentage in greenhouse was obtained with cold stratification after eight weeks (95 %). It was found out that GA3 treatment had a significant effect on germination in growth chamber + 5 0C but GA3 treatment didn’t have a significant effect on germination in greenhouse conditions. GA3 treatment and soaking of unstratified seeds in water for 48 hr didn’t have any positive effect on germination value in greenhouse conditions. Although growth chamber and green house results both indicated that seed collection time did not seem to play a role as statistically on seed germination, Duncan’s test showed that the third seed collection time was in a different group.
Key words: Acer cappadocicum; seed; dormancy; stratification; gibberellic acid
Hanife Erdogan Genç
Ali Ömer Üçler
|Goran Marinković, Ilija Grgić, Jelena Lazić, Milan Trifković|| UDK 630* 424 + 266 + 913
|Land consolidation in the function of shelterbelts for agricultural land in the Republic of Serbia – Crtical review|
The forests as a necessary condition for human civilization existence also are of great ecological and economic importance. This fact is often neglected in practice despite the fact on wide spread scientific knowledge about it. The authors noticed that practice and made research about shelterbelts realization in the numerous cases of theoretical researches as well as in projects of land consolidation projects in Serbia (mostly of them provided in Autonomous Province of Vojvodina as a region where agricultural land dominates). The benefits of shelterbelts are well known from scientific literature and practice for agricultural land protection, but the realization of them in concrete projects are connected with a lot of obstacles. In this paper more than the author ivestigated the projects of land consolidation from the aspect of the chances for building shelterbelts and their realization in practice. The research provided on more than eight hunderd projects of land consolidation has shown that only in a few of them the shelterbelts were forseen and no one of them was realized as designed. The reasons are mostly connected with the resistance of participants in land consolidation to give up of their land for shelterbelts building, with lack of capacities for seedlings providing and with the insufficient attention paid to this issue in legal regulation.
In this paper the results of analysis of shelterbelts in the process of land consolidation are shown. Research encompassed three different and distinguished projects of land consolidation in Autonomous Province of Vojvodina - The Republic of Serbia, through which realization was required to provide the projects of shelterbelts. Bearing in mind that chosen projects are spread in different geographical areas of research fields, the conclusions obtained in this paper could be considered as representative for Vojvodina. The Vojvodina is especcialy interesting for research because this region is lacking with forest. To reach the standards of 0.16 hecteares per citizen the woodlands in Vojvodina shall be increased from actual value of 193,621 hectares to the values of 308,045 hectares. Bearing in mind that importance of agricultural land and its preservation in the future from the aspect of sustainable development the land consolidation projects are the best chance for reaching before mention goal of increasing woodlands in Vojvodina. The study has shown that chance for increasing forest area in Vojvodina was not utilized, i.e. that projects of shelterbelts were not taken into consideration, and even if they were, the considered area was never brought to the designed goals. The visualization of project solutions and the actual implementation of the shelterbelts in the considered municipalities is shown in Figures 1-6. Overview of the number of analyzed projects of land consolidation, the number of land consolidation projects where was planned the establishment of shelterbelts and the number of land consolidation projects where are realized shelterbelts is given in Table 1.
Key words: eolic erosion; shelterbelt; land consolidation
|Damir Drvodelić, Milan Oršanić|| UDK 630* 279
|Grafting cultivars of decorative japanese maples|
The article discusses the importance of decorative Japanese maples in landscaping projects and their great variability. The method of production of seed rootstocks and the side-veneer technique of grafting, which is carried out in protected areas in late winter, are explained in detail. All factors to be considered before, during and after grafting are explained. The article clarifies the codes used in the nursery production of grafted plants and is taken from the standards of the European Nurserystock Association (E.N.A.). This professional paper can serve all nurseries as well as individuals who wish to propagate a particular cultivar of Japanese maples.
Key words: rootstock; scion; side-veneer grafting; grafted plants care; E.N.A. standard
DRVODELIĆ, Damir ŠL
ORŠANIĆ, Milan ŠL