|How do we manage forests of small owners/holders in the Republic of Croatia|
The status of private forests in the Republic of Croatia has been treated in the Editorial section of the Forestry Journal on several occasions, and in 2017 “The status of private forests in the Republic of Croatia” was a topic discussed at the Day of Croatian Forestry.
According to the Forest Management Plan of the Republic of Croatia from 2016, forests and forestland in Croatia cover 2,759,039.05 ha. Of the overall area, state owned forests account for 2,097,318 a (76 %), while privately owned forests account for 661,721 ha (24 %).
Article 14 of the Law on Forests classifies private forest owners into three groups: small owners with forests and/or forestland of up to 20 ha, medium owners with forests and/or forestland of more than 20 ha but less than 300 ha, and large forest owners with forest area and/or forestland exceeding 300 ha.
According to this classification, over 99 % of the area of forests and forestland are owned by small forest owners (418,654 owners), which means that the average size of the forest property is 0.5 ha.
As you may have noticed in the introductory part, there is an ambiguity relating to the terms forest owner and forest holder, which is the result of the dual keeping of land books through the land register and cadastre. Their unsettled status makes it more difficult to define real relationships. We always stress that the regulation of property-legal relations is the priority and the first precondition for creating an organized society. We must also make a clear distinction between the purpose and the use of forest and agricultural land. The first division was made during the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, but despite numerous legal provisions we have not yet done so since. Thus, for example, a large part of privately owned forests came into being by agricultural land being overgrown, but in land registers they are still registered as meadows, pastures, or ploughland. At the same time, we raise olive groves and vineyards or issue permits for grazing over an absolute forest land in state forests???
Due to historical circumstances, there are exceptionally small areas of forestland in private ownership today, and as such they do not ensure continuous income to their owners. Instead, there is an attempt to derive as much financial profit as possible through one operation without adhering to the principle of sustainability, the fundamental principle in forestry.
The awareness of the need to functionally merge and plan silvicultural treatments at the level of compartments and sub-compartments has regrettably not yet taken root among Croatian forest owners. Therefore, despite the fact that management plans have been drawn for most private forests, in practice management is reduced to disconnected operations in individual plots.
Private forests of small forest holders are witnessing an increase in criminal actions such as felling without marking, theft, timber extraction by unregistered or unlicenced contractors, uncontrolled placing of timber on the market, illegal timber trade, etc. The absence of clear and transparent (market) price forming policy in Croatia favours various resellers, while valuable raw material, usually without any control, ends up on foreign markets.
All this makes us think about the responsibility of the state as a legislator and its attitude towards this category of private property, but also towards the common good protected by the Constitution of the Republic of Croatia. Let us also tackle the responsibility of the entire forestry profession and its institutions, as well as our colleagues, certified engineers, who mark trees or dispatch timber in the field guided by the principle “one must have something to live on”. If we, as a profession, turn a blind eye to this problem, we will hardly be able to boast in the future of the tradition of sustainable and close-to-nature management of our forests.
The first precondition for installing the order in private forests of small holders involves setting up a guard service. According to the valid Law on Forests, the guarding of forests is the responsibility of their owners, which is practically unfeasible given their condition and age structure, or this could be done by forest owners’ associations, which again rarely happens in practice.
Throughout history there have always been forest guards. Until the mid-20th century they were municipal (regional) forest rangers, and until very recently this job was performed by employees of the company Croatian Forests.
There are several options which might solve this situation:
Þ Restore the jurisdiction of Croatian Forests Ltd by re-registering the company.
Þ Implement guard services through local self-government bodies, similar to the regulations set down in the previous Law on Forests; however, this was not applied in practice.
Þ Establish a “Forest Police” service with clearly defined powers to ensure order and prevent criminal activities.
Þ Establish a State Forest Institution (Agency), which will exercise public powers and promote interests independently of forest ownership, as well as enable meaningful and comprehensive planning and management at all levels.
|ORIGINAL SCIENTIFIC PAPERS|
|Mara Marić, Ivana Vitasović-Kosić|| UDK 630* 270 + 232.1 (001)
|Horticultural species of the island of Lokrum in the period of archduke Maximilian of Habsburg (1859–1869) and their current state|
This research, conducted within the ornamental gardens of the Island of Lokrum and based on the original archival documents from Trieste State Archives (AST) and Austrian State Archives (OeStA) in Vienna, was aimed at creating the first unique list of horticultural plant taxon planted on the island during the reign of the Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian Habsburg (1859-69). The research identified 213 taxa, including 184 species, 4 varieties, 8 hybrids and 17 cultivars. There were 193 allochthonous taxa, mostly originating from Central and South America (66), including 47 Asian species, 21 Australian species, 17 African species and 13 South American species. The Archive lists 20 taxa autochthonous in Croatia. While the number of the autochthonous taxa had apparently been higher, the historical documents have mostly recorded only the introduction of exotics. At that time, the following taxa were for the first time introduced in this part of the Adriatic, on the Island of Lokrum: Ananas comosus, Musa x paradisiaca, M. acuminata, Eucalyptus diversifolia, E. globulus, Araucaria araucana, A. columnaris, A. angustifolia, A. bidwillii, A. cunninghamii, Bougainvillea spectabilis and Citrus reticulata. At the location of the ornamental gardens, 51 ornamental allochthonous taxa and 20 autochthonous taxa were identified today. Within this number, only 21 allochthonous taxa and 9 autochthonous taxa remain present since the period of Maximilian. According to the 2018-2019 inventory, 71 taxa have been inventoried within the ornamental gardens on Lokrum, belonging to 43 families and 64 genera. Due to lack of intensive maintenance of the gardens, the majority of allochthonous, exotic species failed to survive within the autochthonous island vegetation. The list of taxa from Maximilian’s gardens presented in this paper and retrieved from the archival sources, will be the starting point of the restoration process that awaits these gardens.
Key words: gardens of the Island of Lokrum; Dubrovnik; Maximilian von Habsburg; introduction; allochthonous horticultural species; botanical analysis
|Martin Bobinac, Siniša Andrašev, Nikola Šušić, Andrijana Bauer-Živković, Đura Jorgić|| UDK 630* 561 (001)
|Growth and structure of italian alder (Alnus cordata /Loisel./ Duby) linear plantation at age 11 and 16 years at Fruška gora (Serbia)|
Growth and structure of Italian alder (Alnus cordata /Loisel/ Duby) trees were analyzed in a linear plantation established by planting two-year-old seedlings at Fruška Gora (Serbia). The aim of this paper is to point out the growth characteristics and the structure of the Italian alder linear plantation at age 11 and 16 years and contribute to the knowledge of adaptive and productive potential of the species in the available plantation in Serbia.
The spacing between the trees was 7 m (200 trees per hectare). The plantation is located on anthropogenically changed pedunculate oak and hornbeam site at 125 m above sea level. On the basis of 35 measured trees at age 11 and 16 years, the top height was 15 and 21 m, and the Lorey’s mean height 13.4 and 19.5 m. The dominant diameter was 32.4 cm at age 11 and 59.4 cm at age 16 years. The mean quadratic diameter was 25.1 and 47 cm.The productivity of the plantation is high. At age 11 years, the basal area was 9.9 m2∙ha−1, and the standing volume 107.2 m3∙ha−1 while at age 16 years, it was 34.7 m2∙ha−1 and 305.1 m3∙ha−1, respectively.
In the period from 11 to 16 years of age, the periodic annual increment in diameter was 4.4 cm∙year−1, height 1.22 m∙year−1, and in basal area and volume 4.9 m2∙ha−1·year−1and 39.6 m3·ha−1·year−1, respectively, pointing to fast growth of Italian alder.
Despite the limits due to a small sample and the fact that the linear plantation was analyzed, we generalise the following conclusion: the measured growth characteristics at age 11 and 16 years of Italian alder trees show that the species can grow fast and could be usable in similar areas.
Key words: Alnus cordata (Loisel) Duby; introduction; diameter and height distribution; growth increment
|Hanife Erdogan Genç, Ali Ömer Üçler|| UDK 630* 232.3 (001)
|Seed dormancy removal treatments and germnaton characterstcs of Acer trautvetteri Medvedev seeds|
In this study, seed dormancy removal and germination characteristics of Acer trautvetteri Medvedev, is one of the major maple species of the eastern Black Sea region, were studied. To do that, the seeds were collected in 2008 three times with aproximately 15-days intervals. In order to remove dormancy, several germination treatments were applied. The treatments were (1) different seed collection time, (2) soaking in water, (3) cold-moist stratification and (4) GA3 (gibberellic acid) application. The treated seeds were germinated in growing chamber at 5 0C and in greenhouse conditions. This research indicated that seeds of Acer trautvetteri exhibit physiological dormancy and require stratification period to remove seed dormancy. The highest germination percentage in the growing chamber subjected to GA3 application after eight weeks of stratification treatment was 66 % for Acer trautvetteri seeds. The highest germination percentage in greenhouse was obtained with cold stratification after eight weeks (81 %). Although GA3 treatment had a positive effect on germination in growth chamber + 5 0C, GA3 treatment had a negative effect on germination in greenhouse conditions. Soaking in water of nonstratified seeds wasn’t any significant difference on seed germination. There was a positive correlation between seed collection time and germination (r=0.59). As a result, the third collection time (in october) should be preferred as seed collection time in Acer trautvetteri seeds, considering that it may vary according to the climatic conditions of the year.
Key words: Acer trautvetteri; seed; dormancy; stratification; gibberellic acid
Hanife Erdogan Genç
Ali Ömer Üçler
|Antonio Vidaković, Marilena Idžojtić, Tonko Megyery, Dragan Turk, Igor Poljak|| UDK 630* 272
|Kralj Petar Krešimir IV. park in Zagreb – woody plants|
The Park Kralj Petar Krešimir IV was constructed in the period from 1937 to 1938, and was the first modern city park in the country. The park was divided into two parts by a road. The southern part of the park was designed as a “more naturally” shaped space dominated by the central grassland, whereas the north, smaller unit, was divided into three parts: a flower garden for grown-ups, the central parterre, and a children’s playground. Despite it being a large and important traffic junction nowadays, due to its lush vegetation it managed to preserve its intimate and meditative character used by many citizens to “escape” into the nature. In order to establish the current status of the woody plants on the territory of the Kralj Petar Krešimir IV Park in Zagreb, a dendrological analysis was performed and the current status of woody plants was compared to the status from 1962 and 1995. The plants were identified in the period from the summer of 2018 to the summer of 2019, and the paper includes an analysis of the following data: the number of individual taxa (species, subspecies, varieties, hybrids and cultivars), family affiliation, area, habitus and leaf duration, color of flowers, time of flowering, fruits and the number of autochthonous and allochthonous taxa. There were a total of 122 taxa recorded in the garden, distributed within 36 families: 83 species (six gymnosperms and 77 angiosperms), two subspecies (both angiosperms), 30 cultivars (one gymnosperm and 29 angiosperms), six hybrids (all angiosperms) and one variety (angiosperm). The genera with the most taxa are: Acer L. - maples (9), Prunus L. – plums (6), Berberis L. – holly grapes and Lonicera L. – honeysuckles (5), and Cornus L. – dogwoods and Spiraea L. – bridal wreaths (4). The number of taxa increased by 40 compared to 1962, and by 29 compared to 1995. There are 28 autochthonous taxa, and of the allochthonous ones, most are Asian and North American. According to leaf duration, the park is dominated by deciduous taxa, and as for the habitus, trees and shrubs are equally represented. The park is also home to numerous species and cultivars of flowering shrubs and trees which complement the area with their decorative flowers all year round. Despite the fact that in comparison with different arboreta and botanical gardens the park does not contain more significant woody taxa, nevertheless the trees of ginkgo, plane, common persimmon and Amur cork tree stand out, present in the park since its establishment and constituting an important segment of its visual identity. The Kralj Petar Krešimir IV Park is one of the rare urban parks in Zagreb which has remained well preserved to this day, and its qualities which had led to the status of a monument of park architecture must be preserved to make the public benefit provided by the park also available to future generations.
Key words: woody plants; dendrological analysis; trees and shrubs; horticulture; urban green spaces
IDŽOJTIĆ, Marilena ŠL
|Miroslav Benko|| UDK 630* 226
|Systematic monitoring of the conversion of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) and sessile oak (Quercus petraea L.) seedlings with regard to different planting methods|
The research was carried out in the lowland region at a distance of about 3 km from the Drava River at an altitude of 190 m, in an area where mostly spruce, white pine and black locust are planted, although the habitat is suitable for planting and growing oak. Considering the changed ecological and climatological conditions, an experimental plot of 2.00 ha was established. Three-year-old (2 + 1) seedlings of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) and sessile oak (Quercus petraea) were planted on the plot according to two different methods. The first group was planted at a distance of 3 x 3 m in polypropylene shelters. The second group was planted at a distance of 2 x 2 m in the regular way (without the shelters). The entire area was divided into 24 plots of approximately the same size. Each plot
contained only one tree species. The arrangement of species alternated between the plots. A randomized block design was used, with 4 blocks and 3 replicates. Tree heights were measured for 5 consecutive years not during the growing season. Breast height diameters were measured at the end of the observed period. The impact and intensity of powdery mildew has been observed for three years during the summer months. The aim of the research is to study the growth and development of pedunculate oak and sessile oak seedlings in an area where these species were not commonly grown, although there are adequate ecological and economic conditions. After 5 years of measurement, the number of plants was reduced by 14%. In pedunculate oak the number of trees was reduced by 4 to 8%, and in sessile oak by 17 to 22%. The height and breast height diameters of the trees grown within the shelters were significantly higher regardless of the tree species. The height and breast height diameter of pedunculate oak trees was significantly larger than of sessile oak trees. No correlation was found between tree height and the presence of powdery mildew.
Key words: conversion; growth; polyproyilene tree shelters; tree heights; FOPER forest; Zelendvor; pedunculate oak; sessile oak
BENKO, Miroslav ŠL
|Margarita Bego|| UDK 630* 832 + 836
|From forest to marquetry|
The aim of this paper is to show the importance of forest protection as one of the factors of the preservation of Croatian cultural heritage. Forests are a natural resource and a source of material used in the restoration of wooden objects of artistic value and in this case it is about a specific restoration skill - the art of marquetry. Veneers as wood products obtained by technological processes play a very important role in terms of forest protection and marquetry. Wood is a material that has been used throughout history, and its proper maintenance and use prolong its lifespan. It must be emphasized that this material has distinct physical, mechanical, chemical and aesthetic properties. This paper focuses on its aesthetic properties: lustre, fineness, colour and texture. Marquetry is an art technique developed in the 13th century which has its roots in ancient Egypt and Rome. It is the art of inserting materials to decorate surfaces and objects. Veneers are the most important element of marquetry. Several methods of marquetry developed through history, of which the following stand out: Tarsia certosina, Tarsia geometrica, Tarsia a toppo, Tarsia a Incastro called Boulle’s technique. This paper presents the simplest hand-made marquetry with a given motif. An overview of simple marquetry covers the entire process starting with the selection of veneer to the making of marquetry by the Boulle technique. The development of marquetry technique through history was accompanied by the development of tools for veneer processing and marquetry. Rich inlays created by Boulle’s technique on authentic chests of drawers and closets of great cultural value found in the holdings of Dubrovnik museums prove that the rich cultural heritage is much more than just a one-sided approach to observing all segments mentioned in this paper which are different and yet related interdisciplinary. Therefore, it could be said that fine art rests in the forest.
Key words: wood; veneers; marquetry; marquetry techniques
|Tomislav Poršinsky, Josip Matas, Dubravko Horvat, Andreja Đuka|| UDK 630* 307
|Tyres of forestry vehicles|
Wheel tires are the only contact of forest vehicles with the ground through which forces or loads are transmitted to the forest floor.
Forestry experts therefore need to select tires carefully when equipping vehicles based on their dimensional and constructional characteristics as well as ground and stand conditions. The basic characteristics of tires are processed through their construction, dimensions and marking, load index, speed symbol, inflation pressure and tread pattern. Due to the frequently increased moisture of forest soils and their limited bearing capacity, special attention is paid to the additional equipment of forest vehicle tires with chains, ie semi-tracks in order to reduce forest soil damage and gain efficiency.
Key words: tyre; chain; semi-track
PORŠINSKY, Tomislav ŠL
HORVAT, Dubravko ŠL