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HR  EN   



Scientific-technical and professional journal
of Croatia Forestry Society
                         Issued continously since 1877.
       First issue of this web edition start with number 1-2/2008.
   ISSN No.: 1846-9140              UDC 630*https://doi.org/10.31298/sl

Portal of scientific
journals of Croatia
   Issued by: Croatian Forestry Society

   Address: Trg Mažuranića 11, HR-10000 Zagreb, Croatia
   Phone/fax: ++385 1 4828477
   e-mail: urednistvo@sumari.hr
   Editor in Chief: Josip Margaletić

Uredništvo   173
XV World Forestry Congress      
“Building a Green, Healthy and Resilient Future with Forests” is the motto of the XV World Forestry Congress, held from 2 to 6 May 2022 in the South Korean capital, Seoul. The first congress took place as far back as 1926 in Rome, and since then has been held every six years. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) also joined the host country in the organisation of the Congress. The congress was attended by more than 15.000 participants from 146 countries, making it the largest global gathering on forests in history. Participants included representatives of governments, public agencies, international organisations, the private sector, academic and research institutions, non-governmental organizations and organizations of communities and indigenous peoples. Since the congress was held in a hybrid format, about 4,500 participants took part online. There were 30 thematic sessions organized within six sub-themes that addressed the most important current issues concerning forests and the products and services they provide. The sub-themes were: reversing deforestation and forest degradation; nature-based solutions for climate change adaptation and biodiversity conservation; the green pathway to growth and sustainability; forests and human health; managing and communicating forest information, data and knowledge; and enhancing management and cooperation. The key highlights of the conference were how forests can help combat the multiple crises facing humanity, including climate change, biodiversity loss, land degradation, hunger and poverty.
A total of 141 countries participating in the Congress endorsed the Seoul Forest Declaration with the following conclusions:
• Forests transcend political, social and environmental boundaries and are vital for biodiversity and the carbon, water and energy cycles at a planetary scale. The responsibility over forests should be shared and integrated across institutions, sectors and stakeholders in order to achieve a sustainable future.
• Vast areas of degraded land require restoration. Investment in forest and landscape restoration globally must be at least tripled by 2030 to implement global commitments and meet internationally agreed goals and targets.
• There is no healthy economy on an unhealthy planet. Production and consumption need to be sustainable and policies should foster innovative green financing mechanisms to upscale investment in forest conservation, restoration and sustainable use.
• Wood is one of humanity’s most ancient raw materials but can take us into the future – it is renewable, recyclable and incredibly versatile. The full potential of legal, sustainably produced wood must be used to transform the building sector, provide renewable energy and innovative new materials, and move towards a circular bio-economy and climate neutrality.
• Forest degradation and destruction have serious negative impacts on human health and well-being. Healthy, productive forest must be maintained to reduce the risk of, and improve responsiveness to, future pandemics and provide other essential benefits for human physical and mental health.
• Innovative technologies and mechanisms are emerging for the provision of, and equitable access to, accurate information and knowledge on forests. These must be applied widely to enable evidence - based forest and landscape decision-making and effective forest communication.
In addition to the Forest Declaration, the Congress also heard the Youth Call for Action and the Ministerial Call on Sustainable Wood. The future will show us how successfully the world has implemented conclusions despite all the crisis situations of the last few years, such as pandemics and wars. Climate change suggests that there are delays in proper actions towards forests and the entire planet.
Editorial Board

Krunoslav Sever, Davor Poljaković, Tomislav Karažija, Boris Lazarević, Antonia Vukmirović, Mario Šango, Željko Škvorc  UDK 630* 815 + 847 (001)
Growth of common beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) saplings under the impact of suboptimal mineral nutrition      
This paper presents the results of beech seedling growth under the influence of suboptimal nutrition with nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg) and iron (Fe). The aim of the paper was to bring this issue closer to forestry practice through the discussion of the obtained results in the context of current knowledge on plant growth under the influence of suboptimal nutrition with mineral nutrients. In the early spring of 2019 year, 30 beech seedlings originating from one natural mixed stand of sessile oak and common beech were transplanted into a sterile substrate (agroperlite). After transplanting, over the next three years six transplanted plants for each treatment were regularly watered (treated) with a complete nutrient solution (KO treatment), or nutrient solutions in which nitrogen (-N treatment), phosphorus (-P treatment), magnesium (-Mg treatment) or iron (-Fe treatment) was omitted. Therefore, the beginning and duration of leaf development (2020 and 2021), the number of leaves and the average and total leaf area (2019, 2020 and 2021) were recorded on six plants within each of the five previously described treatments. The root collar diameter and the height of the stem were measured in spring 2019 and autumn 2021, based on which the diameter and height increment of beech seedlings and their slenderness at the beginning and end of the experiment were calculated. In addition, on the treated saplings we determined the dry mass of leaves, stems and roots, and the total length of coarse and fine roots as well as the number of forks and tips of fine roots, which was done in autumn 2021 after their removal from agroperlite. Based on the comparison of the obtained results between the plants in the control and other treatments, it was possible to conclude the following. Under the impact of suboptimal nutrition of beech saplings with P there was a delay in spring bud burst and the beginning of leaf development. The slowest leaf development was observed under the impact of suboptimal nutrition with N and Mg. The average leaf area was not significantly affected by suboptimal nutrition with any nutrient. The decrease in the number of leaves and their total area under the impact of suboptimal nutrition with all nutrients was recorded only in the last year of the experiment. Stem diameter and height increments were also negatively affected by suboptimal nutrition with all nutrients, and reduced saplings slenderness was observed only under the impact of suboptimal Fe nutrition. The total length of coarse and fine roots was also negatively affected by suboptimal nutrition with all nutrients except N. Under the impact of suboptimal N nutrition, there was an increase in the total length of the fine roots as well as an increase in the number of forks and tips of the fine roots. Nevertheless, suboptimal nutrition with all nutrients had a negative effect on the dry mass of coarse and fine roots, including N.

Key words: saplings; mineral nutrients; suboptimal nutrition; growth; dry mass

    SEVER, Krunoslav    ŠL
    Davor Poljaković  
    Tomislav Karažija  
    Boris Lazarević  
    Antonia Vukmirović  
    ŠANGO, Mario    ŠL
    ŠKVORC, Željko    ŠL
Jelena Kolić, Renata Pernar, Ante Seletković, Mirna Samaržija, Mario Ančić  UDK 630* 533 + 535 (001)
Comparison of crown damage assessment on analog and digital infrared color (CIR) aerial photographs      
Efforts to mitigate negative consequences of massive forest dieback include the implementation of economic measures, monitoring the health status of individual trees i.e. assessment of crown damage. Apart from terrestrial methods, forest health is also determined with remote sensing methods, which involve interpretation of color infrared (CIR) aerial photographs.
The inventory of forest damage by using aerial photography is based on the establishment of the degree of damage to individual trees (crowns) using a well-designed photo interpretation key. Reliable statistical data of forest damage can be obtained on the basis of photo interpretation of CIR aerial photography.
Inventories of forest damage have so far been conducted with photo interpretation of analog aerial photographs on analytical stereo instruments. With the advancement of technology, analog images have been replaced by digital and analytical stereo instruments – by digital photogrammetric workstations, and interpretation is done on the computer screen.
The main goal of the research was to compare the results of crown damage assessment on analog and digital ICK aerial photographs of the same area, which is why it was necessary to convert aerial photographs from 1989 by scanning into digital form, and convert digital images from 2008 into analog form.
Analog and digital aerial photographs from two recording periods (1989 and 2008) were interpreted for a part of the management units Josip Kozarac and Opeke. At each point of a 100x100 m grid, 4 nearest trees (crowns) were estimated and damage indicators (damage-O, mean damage-SO, damage index-IO, mean damage1-SO1) were calculated for individual tree species, for all the interpreted species together, per surveying strips, and for the total research area.
On the basis of calculated damage indicators obtained by interpreting analog and digital images from 1989 and 2008, it was found that there was no statistically significant difference between the results in terms of tree health assessment.
The conducted research improved the existing methods of assessing the health status of individual trees and stands, and pointed out the possibilities of applying digital CIR aerial photographs in forestry.

Key words: crown damage assessment; visual interpretation; analog CIR aerial photographs; digital CIR aerial photographs; mirror stereoscope; digital photogrammetric workstation

    Jelena Kolić  
    PERNAR, Renata      ŠL
    SELETKOVIĆ, Ante      ŠL
    Mirna Samaržija  
    ANČIĆ, Mario    ŠL
Matija Landekić, Ivan Bošnjak, Matija Bakarić, Mario Šporčić  UDK 630* 309 (001)
Trends and relations of occupational safety indicators in Croatian forestry      
Forest harvesting, especially motor-manual felling and processing is a high-risk work process where a chainsaw is a key source of danger. Consequently, the main goal of the research is to determine the work potential for quality and safe work of chainsaw workers compared to the achieved average score of work technique. The second goal is related to the recognition of shortcomings and critical elements in work technique as a place of necessary corrections and improvements, and thus the improvement of the safety culture in forestry. The third goal of the research refers to the analysis and comparison of selected safety indicators at the level of the company Hrvatske šume Ltd., the belonging economic activity defined according to the national classification and the state of the Republic of Croatia. A total of 10,253 grades for 11 elements of work technique (Table 2) allocated in the period 2014-2018, and selected indicators of safety at work at the level of company – economic activity – state for the
period 2014-2020, were entered into the database for further processing. Descriptive and inferential statistics techniques were applied in data analysis. Average scores by working elements for the five-year period range from 2.65 to 2.95 (Figure 2), and the level of work technique expressed by the absolute average score is 2.81 (Table 3), which makes 94% of the total working potential (Pmax). The two best rated elements are the use of personal protective equipment (belongs to the C group of elements) and the pruning quality (belongs to the B group of elements), and critical elements of the chainsaw working technique are identified in Group A such as the look of safety zone (turning point) and establishing and checking of felling direction (Table 4). Analysis of variance revealed a statistically significant difference between the A and C groups of working elements (Figure 3). In the analysis of safety indicators in the period in question at the level of the company Hrvatske šume Ltd. the largest number of accidents (51.35% of all recorded injuries at the workplace) occurred during the forest harvesting phase, i.e., during motor-manual felling (Table 5). The analysed trend of the frequency of work-related injuries in the observed period at the enterprise level does not show a significant improvement, but stagnant values with less significant oscillations between years. On the other hand, the number of recognized injuries in the company Hrvatske šume Ltd. makes from 27.07% to 39.96% of the total number of recognized injuries in the economic activity Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery (Table 6). Additionally, observed through the indicator of the number of injuries per 1000 employees (Figure 4), the company Hrvatske šume Ltd. records on average twice the value of the same indicator in relation to the level of the state (12.36 injuries per 1000 employees) and the belonging economic activity (14.30 injuries per 1000 employees). Regarding the number of recognized occupational diseases in the field of Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery, Hrvatske šume Ltd. participate on average with 84.77% of recognized occupational diseases in the observed period (Figure 5). As part of the discussion and conclusions, the key to further improving the safety management system in the Croatian forestry sector is emphasized through the introduction and improvement of the safety culture at the workplace like, for example, specialized and cyclical training programs for workers with the aim of improving work technique, developing good two-way communication, adopting a system of incentives/rewards for good safety behaviour of workers, etc.

Key words: forestry; injuries at work; safety; work technique; felling and processing

    Matija Landekić  
    Ivan Bošnjak  
    BAKARIĆ, Matija    ŠL
    ŠPORČIĆ, Mario      ŠL
Mirjana Šipek, Eva Horvat, Ivana Vitasović Kosić, Nina Šajna  UDK 630* 449 (001)
Presence of alien Prunus serotina and Impatiens parviflora in lowland forest fragments in NE Slovenia      
Temperate alluvial, riparian and lowland forests are the European forests with the greatest presence of invasive alien plants. Consequently, identifying the environmental conditions for and other drivers behind the establishment of invasive species in natural forest communities is crucial for understanding the invasibility of these habitats. We focused on fragments (patches) of Illyrian oak-hornbeam forest in NE Slovenia, which are the least studied in this regard.
Because alien phanerophytes and therophytes are significantly over-represented compared to native plants in lowland forests, we selected two representative invasives: the phanerophyte Prunus serotina and the therophyte Impatiens parviflora. By using logistic regression models on vegetation surveys, environmental data based on Ellenberg´s indicator values, and patch metrics, we identified patch characteristics explaining the presence of each species. Moreover, we included human impact in the models.
We reveal significant characteristics differentiating P. serotina from I. parviflora. We also show that the perimeter-area ratio and soil nutrients of the forest patches correlate significantly with the presence of P. serotina, while human disturbance correlates significantly with the presence of I. parviflora. Our results and a similar approach for other invasive plant species can be applied to assess habitat invasibility on potential and species’ current geographic distribution, as well as to develop management plans.

Key words: biological invasions; forest fragmentation; landscape metrics; habitat characteristics; human presence; neophytes

    Mirjana Šipek  
    Eva Horvat  
    Ivana Vitasović Kosić  
    Nina Šajna  
Ivana Gašparović, Željko Španjol, Boris Dorbić, Nikola Vrh, Ivan Tolić, Milan Vojinović, Sanja Stevanović  UDK 630* 272
Landscape and ecological valorisation in the context of protection and revitalisation of Hober forest park in Korčula, the Republic of Croatia      
The number of recent papers about the establishment of Hober City Park in Korčula is small and they are primarily based on copies of the previous papers. Since its inception, both the area of the City Park and currently also Hober Forest Park have seen a wide range of changes caused by different social and economic, as well as natural circumstances that occurred both throughout history and to date. The Hober area has passed through different development stages, from a natural forest from which it developed, through the city park that was maintained and cared for until it reached the level of legal protection in the Forest Park. In 1969, in accordance with the Decision on the Declaration of the City Park in Korčula a Natural Landscape Reserve, Hober was protected in accordance with Nature Protection Act in the Forest Park Category. After, legal protection was followed by its neglect. The loss of identity of the City Park and Hober Forest Park has been occurring for a large number of years as a consequence of a lack of the necessary maintenance measures, amid the expansion of the settlements and a lack both of the needs and culture of the citizens, which caused its degradation and the loss of its compositional basis. A lack of research and propensity towards renovation and landscaping of this valuable area resulted in an endangered zone both inside the park and to its very boundaries. The City of Korčula recognises the value of Hober City Park. Nevertheless, the areas of Hober and the City Park have a vital importance from the aspect of biology and ecology, as well as from spatial, aesthetic, recreational and tourism aspect in the context of the City of Korčula.
The aim of this paper is to inventory, analyze and valorize the current state of the Hober park-forest and the entire Hober area in relation to its condition throughout history and nowadays and explain its value and the possibilities for landscaping and renovation. The research included the collection of the existing archival materials, documentation, cartographic images and cadastral databases linked with the Park. A complex field research also included making of an inventory and analysis of the pre-existing condition of the Park, as well as both of its garden and architectural components and its biological and ecological components.
On the basis of the conducted research, there were determined areas of natural and cultural landscape in the researched area. The criteria that most comprehensively represent the research area was selected. By means of defining common criteria for determining the landscape values ​​for both types of landscapes, with their comparison we have a complete overview of the values ​​and possible evaluation of each one separately, and also of their biological-ecological and socio-economic integrity. In a certain way, estimates of landscape values ​​also represent their sensitivity to changes and negative impacts. The purpose of the given classification and evaluation of the researched landscapes should be the recommendations by means of which long-term strategies of development and usage are to be adopted. By the arrangement and renovation of the park it should be emphasized all of its values ​​that need to be valorised in the broader context of Hober. The obtained results on such a way, contribute to achievement of a balance between protection and development.

Key words: Park Forest Hober; landscape; valorisation; revitalization; protection

    Ivana Gašparović  
    ŠPANJOL, Željko      ŠL
    Boris Dorbić  
    Nikola Vrh  
    Ivan Tolić  
    Milan Vojinović  
    Sanja Stevanović  
Vladimir Stojanović, Damir Demonja, Maja Mijatov, Jelena Dunjić, Sanja Tišma  UDK 630* 611
Concept of ecotourism development in UNESCO biosphere reserves: Case studies from Croatia and Serbia      
Ecotourism is a sustainable form of tourism in protected areas that provides support for nature protection and sustainable development of local communities. Biosphere reserves are special areas with a relatively original nature and active socio-economic development, as well as with cultural characteristics that must be in harmony with the ecological environment. Understanding the interaction of environmental, economic and social factors in a biosphere reserve is the basis for setting the concept of sustainable development of ecotourism. In respect to that, this paper includes an analysis of the concepts of ecotourism within the protected areas Kopački rit (Croatia) and Gornje Podunavlje (Serbia), in the biosphere reserves Mura – Drava – Dunav (Croatia) and Bačko Podunavlje (Serbia), with the main aim of making a comparative analysis of their organization. The main findings are providing the knowledge basis in terms of nature protection according to the national legislation and international nature protection statuses, nature degradation and challenges of protected area management, organization of tourism, cooperation between nature protection and tourism development, projects supporting the nature protection and ecotourism development and involvement of the local population.

Key words: ecotourism; biosphere reserves; UNESCO; sustainable development; nature protection

    Vladimir Stojanović  
    Damir Demonja  
    Maja Mijatov  
    Jelena Dunjić  
    Sanja Tišma  
Irena Papazova-Anakieva, Sterja Načeski, Margarita Georgieva  UDK 630* 272 + 523
The health condition of trees in dendropark at Faculty of Forestry – Skopje with a special focus on fungal diseases and insect pests      
The Dendropark at the Faculty of Forestry in Skopje, North Macedonia, was established as an ‘outdoor museum’ with a collection of forest trees and shrub vegetation. The collection was planted in 1950 on the area of 4.05 ha, and includes 336 taxa from native Macedonian and Balkan endemic dendroflora and introduced species from around the world. The Dendropark, like the other botanical gardens all over the world, offers a unique resource that facilitate earlier detection of the potential invasive threats to forest tree species. The inventoried population includes 444 trees belonging to 43 families. The three most represented families are Pinaceae with 21 species (19.4% of the inventoried plants), Cupressaceae with 16 species (15.8%) and Rosaceae with 18 species (7.4%). The 2014 survey indicated that 33.8% of the total number of trees were rated with good health status, 1.8% as very good, 31.1% rated as fair, while 24.5% were poor. Approximately 4.1% were rated to be in a critical state (in a state of decline), and 4.7% of trees were dead. The assessment of health status of plants in the Dendropark could be used as a valuable asset to planners and decision makers and provides information about the quality, quantity and location of natural resources in urban areas. Identifying changes in plant species composition and presence of invasive pests and diseases helps maintaining healthy urban forests.

Key words: Platanus orientalis L.; powdery mildews; bark beetles

    Irena Papazova-Anakieva  
    Sterja Načeski  
    Margarita Georgieva