|Forests in the service of decentralisation and demographic recovery of Croatia|
In the last decade, and especially in the past several years, the forestry profession has expressed concern for the state of forest ecosystems and the most valuable tree species. Namely, there is no species that is not under pressure from both old and new pests and diseases, which, in synergy with climate change, significantly reduce their vitality. For example, narrow-leaved ash, an important component of lowland forest stands, has already reached a critical stage of dieback. In our editorials we have frequently discussed the above issue, giving importance to all moves at the global and national level that are aimed at taking care of the great forest wealth in the Republic of Croatia. The Croatian media has recently been addressing the results of the 2021 population census. This has again put demographers in the centre of attention: they have been repeating the same story for decades, yet the decision makers do not take any heed. We may also draw a parallel with our decade-long story about the name of the competent ministry, and particularly about the attitude of the line ministry towards the forest, a resource that covers almost half of the country. Interestingly, demographers have also noticed the role of the public enterprise Croatian Forests, which manage state forests over the entire state territory. They propose decentralisation: “Today, the company Croatian Forests manages forests over the entire territory of Croatia, which is, conditionally said, centralised. Management should really be left to the local communities so that they bear the responsibility, but also have the same authority.” For example, in the Gorski Kotar region, where over 70 percent of the territory is covered with forests, the seventies and eighties of the 20th century was the period in which forestry was aimed at fostering the prosperity of the local community, as well as developing and raising the living standard of the people and the region. Today, it is an area affected by depopulation, while the forest resources at its disposal are either not used or are used elsewhere. A similar story is true for Slavonia, which possess the most valuable commercial forests, but which generate added value further from the place where they grow. This wealthy region has recently recorded the most severe emigration.
Can the above trend be reversed? The adoption of strategic plans and their implementation should be based on comparative advantages of a certain region. We believe that focusing only on the management of raw materials without management of space and without strategic employment of personnel puts the rural areas of Croatia in an even more unfavourable position and leads to increased depopulation of the area. Economic policies which favour close interest groups have already taken their toll. Generous incentives from European funds motivate users to instantly engage in a certain activity, but the ultimate goal of increasing production is usually not met. Quite frequently, the beneficiaries of funds do not even live in the area for which the funds have been allocated. The Forest Acts and the Agricultural Land Act provide for the demarcation of forest and agricultural land according to their natural state and harmonisation with the land registry. Their implementation would facilitate the management of forests and eliminate problems arising from leases of large areas for grazing, the results of which highly questionable. Regrettably, this vital prerequisite for better management of space and for retaining, and even increasing the number of inhabitants in it, has not been fulfilled. Similar to other segments, years go by, but the laws and strategies set out by the goals are not implemented. The organisation of forestry in some neighbouring countries may offer answers to our questions. Austrian and Hungarian forestry companies are not engaged only in the production and sale of wood assortments: their activities are also related to renewable energy sources and nature protection, which expands the possibility of employment for the local population. Ultimately, their foresters have better income and higher living standard.
|ORIGINAL SCIENTIFIC PAPERS|
|Tomislav Poršinsky, Zdravko Pandur, Zoran Bumber, Mihael Lovrinčević, Branko Ursić, Andreja Đuka|| UDK 630* 312 (001)
|Dimensional and mass characteristics of forwarders|
Timber forwarding is characterised by carrying timber clear of the ground and loading timber assortments by a hydraulic crane, which results in the requirement for a parallel network of secondary forest infrastructure network where the distance between trails equals to double span of the hydraulic crane.
The paper presents 1) dimensional and mass characteristics of forwarders considering ISO 13860 (2016) standard and 2) forwarder load distribution plan developed by the German Kuratorium für Wadarbeit und Forsttechnik (KWF) to assist forestry experts in the purchase and use of these forest vehicles.
The heavy eight-wheel forwarder Komatsu 875 was selected as an example. Its dimensional and mass characteristics are shown based on measurements and the load distribution plan, aiming to evaluate the vehicle.
A critical comment is also given regarding the ISO 13860 (2016) standard due to the lack of some dimensional (length and height of the front and rear overhangs of forwarders, approach and departure angles and clearance radii) and mass (position of the centre of gravity point) of forwarders. These characteristics describe and serve to model its mobility during timber forwarding concerning the direction and longitudinal slope of the terrain. In addition, the ISO 13860 (2016) standard does not explicitly mention any indicator of environmental suitability (e.g. nominal ground pressure).
Key words: mobility and performance characteristics of forwarders; ISO 13860 (2016); load distribution
PORŠINSKY, Tomislav ŠL
BUMBER, Zoran ŠL
|Ping Qin, Ying Huang, Wenjun Zheng, Haitao Yu, Qing Zhang, Zhiyuan Xie, Yangyang Gao, Yichuan Bu, Yu Gan|| UDK 630* 231 (001)
|Factors of Natural Regeneration of Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco in Guilin, China|
Cypress (Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco) is one of the important evergreen trees for afforestation in barren mountains, soil consolidation, and water conservation, but natural regeneration of cypress is complex and slow. An understanding of the influence mechanism of the natural regeneration of cypresses is essential for elevating survival and regeneration. This study aimed to clarify the relationship between stand factors, environmental factors, and regeneration of cypress plantations. A total of 42 cypress sample plots in Guilin, China, were selected to evaluate the impact of various stand factors and environmental factors on the regeneration of cypresses using survey statistics and Pearson and Spearmanrank correlation analysis. In this study, cypress has the highest frequency and density of regeneration among all the seedlings in the 18 surveyed forests, but the height structure of cypress seedlings distributes in uneven mode and mainly Grade I (height < 30 cm) seedlings. Low-density herbs and high-density moss mulching had a directly positive effect on the number of cypress regeneration seedlings. Larger soil stone content and gap area can promote cypress regeneration, which is appropriate for cypresses in the seedling stage. In conclusion, timely weeding, proper soil loosening, and improving light transmittance contribute to promoting the regeneration of cypresses.
Key words: Cypress; Stand factors; Environmental factors; Natural regeneration
|Emrah Erdog˘an, Hayati Zengin, Mehmet Özcan, Ahmet Salih Deg˘ermenci, Necmi Aksoy|| UDK 630* 232.4 (001)
|Plant diversity indices for trojan fir stands in Aladag¨ region of Bolu|
640 samples in quadrates of 0.5 x 0.5 m obtained by systematic sampling method were evaluated. Samplings were made in two repetitions in GA (old), GB (young), GC (medium-aged), and GD (irregular) stand types, on north and south aspects. Field studies were carried out in 4 different periods (June, July, August, September) within the vegetation period. 122 plant taxa were determined at the level of species and intraspecific taxa. While 48 of the 122 plant taxa in fir stands were seen only in one of the stands, 41 plant taxa were detected in all stands. 5 taxa were seen only in GA stands, 7 in GB, 15 in GC and 13 only in GD stands, while 8 taxa could not be identified due to the insufficient vegetative and generative organs of the collected samples. The richest stand type in terms of taxa number was determined as the GC stand type with 84 plant taxa, but more individuals per ha were counted in the GA and GD stand types.
Key words: Trojan Fir; Plant diversity; Diversity indices; Stand; Aladağ; Türkiye
Ahmet Salih Deg˘ermenci
|Vladimir Petković, Dane Marčeta, Igor Potočnik|| UDK 630* 319
|Optimization of primary forest accessibility in high forests with natural regeneration|
Optimization of primary forest accessibility is observed from the point of intensity of forest management and terrain relief conditions of the forest area. Optimization of primary forest accessibility is the first phase of the planning of primary forest traffic infrastructure. The second phase is designing of new primary forest traffic infrastructure. The high forests with natural regeneration (high forests) in the public forests are selected for optimization of accessibility because they are the most valuable forest category from the point of quantity and quality of timber. Planning of primary forest traffic infrastructure implies analysis of actual primary forest accessibility of high forests, determination of optimal density of primary forest traffic infrastructure, defining of suitability of high forests area for construction of primary forest traffic infrastructure and upgrading of actual primary forest traffic infrastructure with new routes of primary forest traffic infrastructure. Optimization of primary forest accessibility in hilly and mountainous high forests was done in two Management Units, Prosara and Bobija-Ribnik. Optimal density of primary forest traffic infrastructure ranges from 24 to 26 m/ha. Results showed that high forests have potential for sustainable forest management.
Key words: primary forest traffic infrastructure; GIS; multicriteria evaluation
|Milan Pernek, Marta Kovač, Andrija Jukić , Tomislav Dubravac, Nikola Lacković, Carrie Brady|| UDK 630*459+111.8
|Acute oak decline (AOD) new complex disese on holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) and possibilities of spread on other oak species in Croatia|
The paper presents an overview of current knowledge on Acute Oak Decline (AOD), a polymicrobial disease that was recently discovered in Croatia (in 2021) on the Pelegrin peninsula (island of Hvar). In the last few years typical symptoms have appeared on holm oak trees: dieback of the top of the tree crown, followed by appearance of longitudinal cracks in the bark and black tissue necrosis in the form of black necrosis under the bark. At a later stage, swollen lesions with exit holes of insects on tree stems appear, and after 3-4 years tree dies. The disease spreads from tree to tree, resulting in mass dieback. The causes of tissue necrosis under the bark are pathogenic bacteria Brenneria godwinii, Gibbsiella quercinecans and Lonsdalea britannica, and their possible vectors are jewel beetles Agrilus sulcicolis and A. olivicolor. AOD has so far been described in the United Kingdom, Latvia, Spain, Iran and Switzerland. The specificity of the first AOD finding in Croatia is that holm oak as a native species has a special significance for the Mediterranean forests, and for the first time other species of jewel beetles that have not been found as AOD vectors have been detected. The risk of AOD transition to continental pedunculate oak and sessile oak forests is particularly concerning, because unlike all previous AOD findings in the world, pedunculate and sessile oak forests in Croatia are the only ones that have been exposed to constant attacks of oak lace bug (Corythucha arcuata) for years. The possible synergism of oak lace bug with AOD could be extremely dangerous. Therefore, the prompt application of protection measures, especially preventive ones, together with the importance of scientific research is emphasized.
Key words: pedunculate oak; sessile oak; Quercus spp.; Agrilus sulcicollis; Agrilus olivcolor; Agrilus biguttatus; climate change
PERNEK, Milan ŠL
DUBRAVAC, Tomislav ŠL
|Slavko Mladenović, Milan Malinić, Boris Radić, Dragica Vilotić, Srđan Stamenković, Dragan Gačić|| UDK 630* 156
|Monitoring of reintroduced red deer in the area of Tara (Western Serbia): incidence of bark stripping within an acclimatisation enclosure and postrelease movements|
The modern approach in the development of programs for the reintroduction of red deer was applied for the first time in Serbia. We compared the most important planned and implemented activities in the period 2018-2021, and assessed the results achieved in the Mt. Tara area. The plan was to hold the red deer (5♂ + 15♀) in the acclimatisation enclosure for several months and release them into the selected favourable area (150 km2) during three consecutive years. Bark stripping occurred mainly on thinner common hazel stems of coppice origin (≤ 9.9 cm). Total mortality among the 72 red deer that were transported to the acclimatisation enclosure was 8.3%. The longest movement of a 4-year-old female (held for 15 weeks) was 24 km. During the study period, no bark stripping was observed outside the acclimatization enclosure, nor were any deaths of the released red deer registered. In the period 2019-2021, 74 red deer were released from the acclimatization enclosure into the Mt. Tara area, which is about 60% of the estimated capacity of the selected favourable area.
Key words: Cervus elaphus L.; reintroduction; population; management; GPS collar