|Should forest pay for everything?|
In the last double issue we raised the question whether the National Forestry Policy and Strategy should be modernised. While still waiting for some answers, we have only heard that the topic deserves a wide specialist discussion. This means that such issues will continue to be treated individually when they occur, instead of being solved on a global level. We hinted that there certainly were some more questions, and we did not wait long for the reaction; in the Business Diary (Poslovni dnevnik) we have read that the wood processors require from the trading company “Hrvatske šume” a 15% decrease in timber prices and prolonged payment terms of the former 90 days, or, according to the latest information 120 days. The demand accounts for 20% price decrease in wood products on the market and 25% decrease in orders, which calls for compensation measures from the Government. It is said that the most affected are the manufacturers of pellets and pellet-formed fuelwood - the products with low added value. We wrote about these products (as well as about parquet and final products) on several occasions, pointing at the fact that pellets are primarily the waste material from final wood processing, the dry wood, while the moist wood requires price-raising drying to achieve a required degree of moisture. So far they have been compensated by the brutally “cheap raw material”; now both price reduction and payment terms are required. If it is 90 days it means a turnover of 4 (for 120 days it rounds up to 3 - which is a catastrophe). There would be no insurance of the existing situation, not to mention the development. Indeed, does it matter anything at all when forests are here to pay the bill?! The advocates of non-market business from the wood sector suggest that the Government after serious interventions in ship building and through the consolidation of strategic firms has the opportunity to accept urgent sector measures through the business of the Croatian Forests Ltd. With the mentioned price decrease of 15% and the payment prolongation of 120 days, of the seven measures proposed to the Government a significant component of the market business operation is the interesting one - the elimination of the retail sale in Croatian Forests Ltd., which means the elimination of the competition. Compared to the selling prices of the main wood assortments on the markets in the region (Austria, Italy, Hungary, Bosnia & Herzegovina and Serbia), the prices at which Croatian Forests Ltd. is selling their wood assortments to our wood manufacturers amount to round 500 million hrk a year, by which money have the wood manufacturers already been encouraged. Another question is how the wood manufacturer helps Croatian Forests Ltd. with solving the issues of raw wood stock. When they need raw material they exert pressure upon suppliers without considering weather conditions and the damage upon the forest soil; When there is stock surplus, it is not their problem in spite of the signed contracts! To the unpaid credits and debits to Croatian Forests we shall refer on another occasion. We shall not even mention the pre-bankruptcy settlements as well as the explanations of the responsible parties saying that these measures are saving the jobs in wood processing instead of doing favour to the big debtors. A firm with significant rent status as to raw material asked for Government intervention. They received encouragement but the whole “management team” that brought the firm to this situation stayed in charge! What can be said after all this but wonder what kind of policy which supports non-market business in forestry protects the forest as national wealth while encouraging the development of both primary and final wood processing? The answer is in the results!<br>
|ORIGINAL SCIENTIFIC PAPERS|
|Tomislav Poršinsky, Vlado Petreković, Andreja Đuka|| UDK 630* 523 (001)
|Bark thickness of wild cherry in timber scaling|
Bark Thickness of Wild Cherry in Timber scaling
The bark is the outer shell of the tree, and it is made of the outer and inner segment. Out of all bark features, the most important is its thickness and share in the volume of trees and processed logs. In the process of timber harvesting, during scaling of processed logs, in Croatian forestry, two-entry tables (wood species and diameter over bark) are used for deduction of double bark thickness that are not the result of a scientific research. This paper aims to investigate bark features of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.) concerning 1) dependence of double bark thickness on the diameter of roundwood with bark, 2) dependence of bark share on the diameter of roundwood.
The research of bark features of wild cherry has shown as follows:
Þ the dependence of the double thickness of the bark on the diameter of roudwood with bark is equal to the regression analysis, the growing exponential curve of form y = a xb, which in wild cherry with 62.7% explains the variability of the double thickness of the bark on the diameter of roundwood with bark,
Þ by rounding down the value of double bark thickness to the nearest centimeter, the research showed that the existing application of the bark deduction table overestimates the double thickness of the bark of wild cherry in specific diameter ranges of roundwood,
Þ simulation analysis of the volume (value) differences of the logs in terms of bark thickness deduction in Croatian forestry and considering the two ways of deducting bark thickness during timber scaling resulting from this study (due to »a full centimetre« and due to the share of bark in volume) have shown possible savings in the process of timber scaling,
Þ by deducting the bark according to its share in the volume of roundwood, the savings are larger and include a wider range of log diameter compared to »a full centimetre« deductions.
Key words: deduction of double bark thickness; share of bark; log; wild cherry
PORŠINSKY, Tomislav ŠL
|Stjepan Kvesić, Dalibor Ballian, Mirzeta Memišević Hodžić|| UDK 630* 164 (001)
|Leaf variability of field maple populations (Acer campestre L.) in Bosnia and Herzegovina|
Morphological variability of 25 populations of field maple (Acer campestre L.) in the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina was researched. Morphometric investigation of intrapopulation and interpopulation variability was based on 19 morphological leaf traits, using descriptive and univariate statistical analyses. Leaf petiole length showed the highest variability, while calculated trait of the ratio between
the maximum legth and maximum width of the leaf showed the lowest variability. Calculated traits were less variable than measured traits, indicating lower variation of leaf shape than leaf dimension. Variance analyses showed statistically significant differences between populations in all analyzed leaf traits. Multiple testing showed a higher interpopular than intrapopular variability in all measured traits except two traits of the geometric data scale (angle of the veins). Unlike measured leaf traits, all calculated leaf traits showed higher intrapopulation than interpopulation variability. The most divergent population, on the one hand, was Trebinje population, with most of the minimum mean values of the leaf, while on the other hand the most divergent was Banja Luka population, whith most of the maximum mean values of the leaf. The obtained results can serve as a basis for further research into other parts of the distribution range of the species, in the purpose of determining the interaction influence of ecological, geographical, climatic and migration factors on the overall morphological variability of field maple populations.
Key words: field maple; leaf; morphological variability.
Mirzeta Memišević Hodžić
|Osman Mujezinović, Kenan Zahirović, Milivoj Franjević, Mirza Dautbašić|| UDK 630* 443 (001)
|Trophic preferences and influence of beech weevil on the damaged leaf area of beech trees in Bosnia and Herzegovina|
The impact of beech weevil on the damaged area of beech trees from adult and larvae was analyzed, depending on the location and position of trees of beech in stand (sun/shadow). The research localities were located within the forest plantation of spruce, natural beech forests and mixed beech, fir and spruce forests. Beech weevil represents one of the main defoliators appearing on beech trees. The research sample consists of 15 beech trees, 5 trees per location, on three locations. On each location, were selected 3 trees with the crown in the sun and 2 trees with the crown in the shade (a total of 9 trees in the sun and 6 trees in the shade). On each tree were measured damages from the adult and larvae of beech weevil. It has been found that the average damaged area on beech leaf varied for adult from 2-4%, and larvae 4-8%. Statistical analysis showed a statistically significant differences in damaged areas of beech leaf from larvae, depending on the position of beech trees in the stand.
Key words: Fagus sylvatica; Rhynchaenus fagi; damaged area; locality; sun; shade
FRANJEVIĆ, Milivoj ŠL
|Sercan Gulci|| UDK 630*360 (001)
|Productivity of a farm tractor with single drum winch during whole-tree timber extraction|
In forested areas with difficult terrain conditions the cost of forest harvesting operations is of great importance. This situation affects the technology standards of tools and equipment used in forestry operations. Especially in developing countries modified farm tractors are widely used as effective tools for transporting timber from stump to landing areas. In this study, productivity of the farm tractor with front-mounted single drum winch designed for multipurpose use in forestry operations was evaluated during whole-tree harvesting operation. The total cost of used system (tractor and winch) is approximately 19580 € (Euro). Time and motion study was implemented by using repetitive time measurement technique during two step timber extraction operation. The effects of main factors such as tree diameter, height, volume, and skidding distance on the total operation time were investigated and then linear regression analysis was performed to develop the mathematical models for whole-tree extraction methods. Time study data resulted that winching trees to the prebunching area was the most time consuming work stage in uphill winching method while skidding trees backward to landing was less time consuming work stage in skidding method. The average productivity of uphill winching and skidding whole-tree was as 12.98 m3/hour and 14.30 m3/hour, respectively. The cost of uphill winching and skidding was 10.77 €/hour and 11.87 €/hour, respectively. It can be concluded that the single-drum hydraulic system, which is mounted on the front of the tractor, can be used as an alternative harvesting equipment especially for uphill winching operations in small scale forestry operations.
Key words: Mountainous forests; forest harvesting; farm tractor; productivity; whole-tree method; developing countries
|Vania Kachova, Angel Ferezliev|| UDK 630*261 (001)
|Improved characteristics of Populus sp. ecosystems by agroforestry practices|
Agroforestry is a multifunctional, environmentally-friendly and modern system of land use by which we can reach economic, environmental and social benefits for the society. This is confirmed by this study on poplar plantations along the Danube River in the region of Vidin (Bulgaria) where agroforestry was practiced by intercropping cultivation of vegetable crops. Productivity of poplars is improving by applying agroforestry. The average diameters and the average heights of trees in the areas with agroforestry are high for the correspondent age. Thus the 10 yеаrs old plantation with agroforestry has DBH = 9.9 cm and Hav = 7.44 m whereas the same aged control has worse dendrometric characteristics (DBH = 8.7 cm ; Hav = 7.04 m). The other sample plot (SP1) near Novo selo village with 2 years old plantation where are currently planted corn has DBH = 2.7 cm and Hav = 2.67 m. The sample plot (SP3) near Vidin with 3 years old plantation where before 1 year has been planted corn has DBH = 1.6 cm and Hav = 2.55 m. The creation of agroforestry systems also leads to improvement of soil properties. Total soil humus content is higher in poplar ecosystems with agroforestry (varied from 4.3% to 2.5%) in comparison with the control (2%). Regarding the composition of organic matter, the control has the smallest content of stable humic acids (0.20%) in comparison with the other three agroforestry systems which have humic acids contents from 0.78% to 0.49%. At the same time control has the highest content of fulvic acids (0.62%) which is more mobile and less stable in comparison with humic acids. The content of fulvic acids in the other plots (with agroforestry) varied from 0.46% to 0.05%. At the same time the control has the highest content of “aggressive” fulvic acids (0.05%). This gives as reason to recommend agroforestry systems as appropriate in growing Populus sp. in Vidin region on Fluvisol.
Key words: silvoarable systems; organic matter; poplar growth; humus composition
|Natalie Levandovska, Jaromir Kolejka, Božena Šera, Hubert Zarnovičan|| UDK 630* 270 + 907
|The recreational potential of urban forests – an application of the assessment method|
This paper is devoted to the method of recreational potential assessment of urban forests regarding the functional abilities – a set of indicators measuring of forest stands to recreation as a practical tool for urban forests management, landscape planning and administration authorities. One of the main research tasks presented in this paper was to use indicators which are understandable for ordinary users. This aspect is important, because it enables the method to be utilised for a wide range of participants, administrative collaborators that can assess urban forests in terms of their suitability for recreation. A test of the created methodology (a case study in “Horský park” forest in Bratislava) shows the suitability of evaluation on the recreational purposes of urban forests. The characteristics of each individual indicator designate the ways to enhance the recreational value of urban forests, and they may be used for sustainability of urban forests management.
Key words: urban forest; forest recreation; human impact; town greenery
|Zvonimir Ištvan|| UDK 630* 902
|145 year of forestry in Podravina|
Since 1874, when the property districts of Đurđevac and Križevci were established, the areas of Podravina and Prigorje were marked by organized forestry and management of the most valuable national asset. It can be stated that the forests of this area have been systematically taken care of for 145 years. The paper presents a historical outline of law regulations related to forestry of the researched area, along with foundation and activity of the property district of Đurđevac aswell as forestry districts or regional forestry offices.
Key words: law regulations; property district of Đurđevac; forestry administration; forestry
IŠTVAN, Zvonimir ŠL
|Drago Biondić|| UDK 630* 762 + 799
|Integral performance index of small and medium wood industrial financial products|
This paper aims to present in a short form a relatively simple methodology of integral performance evaluation and the possibility of its application in small and medium-sized timber industrial enterprises. With some adjustments to the assessment elements, the method is applicable in all industries and services. Integral performance evaluation is in the function of achieving business excellence. The performance appraisal method itself involves benchmarking against the desired state and partly an in-depth analysis of operating results. Integral performance appraisal involves the systematic comparative review of the results achieved by the elements, functions and organization as a whole. In a narrow format, the method, based on the perception of business results in relation to the desired situation, can be applied to self-assessment of the timber industry business with the prior brief management training. A more objective assessment of effectiveness through detailed implementation of the
methodology can be achieved through the engagement of an interdisciplinary team of consultants. The management and all employees of the company should be open for cooperation during the consultants’ work in the company. Collaboration with consultants to protect the confidentiality of company data, includes analysis of documentation, recording and reviewing technical and economic data, interviewing employees at all levels, interviews of stakeholders from the environment and calculating all coefficients, shares and rates that can be compared to the desired situation. In addition, in a very abbreviated form, information will be provided on the integral estimates of the performance index by element, function and organization as a whole for an imaginary firm that manufactures solid wood furniture that produces furniture according to customer’s designs.
For the sake of brevity, this could not show all the automatically obtained graphs by function, which could clearly show the inefficiency of each element in the management, development of innovative and promotion of new products, in the organization of business and production, digital transformation, growth and development. and finance. In this way, it would be easy to detect in which elements changes in the business should be introduced, most likely with the need to use external expertise.
The integral performance evaluation for the nine imaginary manufacturing company features shown in Table 2 and Chart 1. was calculated after the automatic entry of ratings and indices and the previous nine tables that could not be displayed for the limited length of this paper. The average scores so entered in Table 2 are multiplied by the intensity of the impact and an average score of 2.83 is obtained, which gives an imaginary enterprise efficiency index of 56.52%. See table 2 INTEGRAL PERFORMANCE INDEKS and Graph 1. Display of performance index by manufacturing company functions
The minimum efficacy with respect to the desired incidence rate should range from 20.00 % to 70.00 %, and the partially satisfactory efficacy ratio with respect to the desired incidence rate should range from 71.00% to 90.00% , satisfactory to the desired state of efficacy with respect to the desired one according to the intensity intensity should range from 91.00% to 100.00%
The efficiency of an imaginary manufacturing company in the wood processing industry in 2017 relative to the desired state by function is minimal and ranges from 46.00% to 67.00% with an integral index of 65.52%. Consequently, a thoughtful manufacturing company is the least effective in the areas of management, innovation development and new product promotion, business organization and production, digital transformation, and growth and development, resulting in poor financial efficiency.
From all of the above, it can be concluded that with the application of the methodology of integral efficiency index in the small and medium enterprises of wood processing industry, within three to five days, the areas with the scope of necessary changes and improvements in business can be successfully detected, all with the aim of constant approaching excellence and increasing competitiveness.
Key words: business excellence; efficiency; integral approach; performance appraisal; interdisciplinary approach; perception; desired state; introduction of changes in business