|ON COMPANIES AND CONCESSIONS|
|Recently, the Government, the Church and the public have been concerned with the topic of whether the public enterprise Hrvatske Vode should be legally transformed into a company or not. Faced with stiff opposition by the Church and the public, according to the media reports, the Government is going to withdraw the prepared Act from the procedure. In the estimate of its opponents, the Act would enable the sale of national water resources. Article 52 of the Constitution stipulates the following: “The sea, the coast and islands,waters, airspace, mining resources and other natural treasures, but also land property, woods, plants and animals, other parts of nature, immovable property and items of particular cultural, historic, economic and ecologic significance, which are of interest for the Republic of Croatia according to law, have its particular protection”. Politicians are not to be trusted, however: the implementation of the proposed Act could mark a dangerous step towards the sale of the family silver.When the Croatian Forestry Association opposed the conversion of the public enterprise Hrvatske Šume into a limited liability company using identical arguments, it did not meet with any support. Do we deal here with a double standard or is this the case of “subsequent wisdom”, in other words, the case of finally opening our eyes? The proposed Act puts water supplies at risk, but the forest which stores, preserves and cleanses this same water and which is also treated as a national resource is not at risk! Or maybe it is? According to the Croatian encyclopedia, a company is defined as a “private-legal association, allowed by legislation, for the purpose of achieving a common goal. Companies in a stricter sense of the word are associations which carry on business with the goal of making a profit .... “According to the same source, a public enterprise is a “colloquial term for a company that deals with an activity of public interest”. In defense of our attitude, we pointed out that a public enterprise is not allowed to make irrational business and that its primary aim is not to receive state funding; on the contrary, its task is first and foremost to carry out its functions in a professional and responsible manner. Therefore, if the public company HrvatskeŠume was capable of carrying out all the activities for forest owners that characterize sustainable forest management and of financing them from its own income and means obtained from non-market forest functions (OKFŠ), taking on the classical economic role (harvesting timber) and ensuring non-timber forest functions (both ecological and social), then it was simply not wise for a clever owner to seek a new organizational form. All the owner had to do was to check that the financial means were rationally used and see if more could have been achieved with these means, since we are aware that there is no profit in forestry if we strive to restitute to the forest at least a small share of what it gives to us through our activities.By supporting the attitude of the Church and the public related to the water issue, we must also answer the question of where the forestry profession is now.
We have a limited liability company Hrvatske Šume, but a new problem is emerging: the issue of granting forest concessions. In the Croatian Encyclopedia mentioned above it says “concession (lat. concessio) in a broader sense is the act of yielding, conceding, as a right, a privilege. In general, concession is a special contract granting the right to operate an activity”. To put it more freely, we could say that the State grants the right to someone else to do something because we do not know or are not capable of doing it rationally ourselves. Is not this an outright insult to Croatian forestry with an almost 250-year-long tradition and to a company with about one thousand forestry experts and some ten thousand employees? As for the issue of profit, which the state, as we have pointed out earlier, unjustifiably expects from forestry, who on this earth would invest considerable means into a foreign country, only to receive back less than invested (unless the noble goal is to fight for the welfare of the citizens of the country, especially those from rural areas, which would be preposterous to expect from a profiteer!)? We should also ask why the profession and the company did not react more firmly to these rumours. Further on, the Encyclopaedia states explicitly: “Concession cannot be granted for forests and other legally designated goods in state ownership”. In spite of this, however, there are proposals on granting concessions, and even selling forests, as a way out of the economic crisis. According to the statements of the competent minister, we may optimistically hope that this will not happen. We would like to know, however, where these proposals are coming from. We are convinced that they are not coming from any forestry experts. It may just be the case of “testing the public” by those same economic experts who have driven us into the economic crisis or by those legal experts who have written the laws bywhich Croatia has been plundered. Admittedly, the law was adhered to, but what about the morals?
This topic is intended to encourage discussions and analyses of the impacts of external factors on the forest and the forestry profession, but also to review the current condition and the solutions within the profession.
|ORIGINAL SCIENTIFIC PAPERS|
|Krapinec, K., D. Konjević, I. Brezovac, L. Manojlović, K. Severin, V. Njemirovskij, M. Grubešić, K. Tomljanović||UDK 630* 156 (001)||7|
|Some Morphological Characteristics of Wild Boar Tusks and Evaluation of Aging Methods|
|Summary: In this paper 14 parameters of wild boar tusks were analyzed. The analyzed sample contained 26 pairs of lower and upper canines (52 lower and 52 upper canines in total), originating from state hunting grounds No. VII/4 “Garjevica” and VII/15 “Zapadna Garjevica”. Measured parameters showed statistically high positive and significant relations with age according to Brandt and Bieger methods of estimation, but lower and even negative, non-significant relations with age assessed by tendon method. Obtained results indicate necessity of re-evaluation of tendon method of age estimation (validation for specific wild boar population), or even to drop this method from further use. The parameters used to estimate age by Bieger and Brandt methods showed higher correlation to age in more curved tusks. By increasing age a relatively continuous growth of other parameters was observed. Within that, correlation of average length of lower canine with age is much higher than the correlation of canine width and age (R2=0.799; p<0.0001; respectively R2=0.62; p<0.0001). Highest increase, expressed in trophy value (CIC points) is in average width of lower canine, while lowest increase shows upper canine girth. The lower canine width (r=0.98; p<0.01) and length (r=0.98; p<0.01) showed highest correlation with trophy value. Upper canine girth and total tusk curves (of both upper and lower canines) expressed relatively high, but still much lower correlation (r=0.87; p<0.01; respectively r=0.77; p<0.01). In general, relatively high and statistically significant correlation between all trophy evaluation parameters were found (p<0.01), ranging from r=0.62 (between girth and tusk curves) to r=0.98 (between lower canine length and width).
Key words: age; Bieger; Brandt; grinders; lower tusks; Sus scrofa; tendon method; trophy; tusks
KRAPINEC, Krešimir ŠL
GRUBEŠIĆ, Marijan ŠL
TOMLJANOVIĆ, Kristijan ŠL
|Kobal, M., M. Urbančič, N. Potočić, B. De Vos, P. Simončič||UDK 630* 114.2 (001)||19|
|Pedotransfer Functions for Bulk Density Estimation of Forest Soils|
|Abstract: The data of 45 soil profiles from a 16 × 16 km grid across Slovenia was analysed to develop a local pedotransfer function (PTF) for bulk density (.b) estimation. In total, 106 soil horizons were considered. Concentration of organic carbon (OC) was found to be well correlated (r = -0.861, p < 0.001) with .b. Two separate line segments were fitted to the data, which was partitioned into two intervals, based on OC content (below 36.0 g/kg and above 36.0 g/kg). Nearly 80 % of the variability in .b is explained with segmented regression. The local PTF was compared with published PTFs and four validations indices (MPE, SDPE, RMSPE and R2) confirmed the highest prediction quality of the local PTF. The differences of carbon stock (Cpool) estimation, based on usage of different PTFs could be higher than 160 t OC per hectare. Prediction of carbon stocks could be substantially improved by calibration of the models coefficients with data stratified according to each unique soil type.
Key words: carbon stock Cpool; forest soil; organic carbon OC; pedotransfer function PTF; segmented regression
POTOČIĆ, Nenad ŠL
De Vos, Bruno
|Pekeč, S., B. Vrbek, S. Orlović, B. Kovačević||UDK 630* 232.3 + 114.2 (001)||29|
|Production Potencial of Black Poplar (Section Aigeiros Duby) on Eugley|
|Summary: The paper presents the results of poplar plants´ growing on the soil that is not typical for poplar nursery production - on eugley soil. The diameter and height increments were examined for five clones of black poplar: ´S1-3´ (P. deltoides Bartr ex Marsh), ´B-17´ (P. deltoides Bartr ex Marsh), ´S6-7 ´(P. deltoides Bartr ex Marsh), ´260/81´(P. deltoides Bartr ex Marsh) and ´155/81´(P. × euramericana (Dode) Guinier). This soil type is characterized by the fact that the layer from the surface down to 60 cm depth, where the largest mass of roots of seedlings is formed, contains the highest percentage of the total content of clay and silt, and the worst water-air conditions. The texture classes by the soil profile downwards were: silty loam, clay loam and loamy sand. In this type of soil, we observed low survival of cuttings of the examined black poplar clones that, at the end of the growing season, ranged from 63.7–69.4%. There was no significant difference in cutting survival among them. The least significant differences test at the level of risk of 5% divided examined clones in two groups by shoot height: clones ´S1-3´and´B-17´with a 194–197 cm and the clones´S6-7´,´260/81´and ´155/81´with a 157–168 cm shoot height. The mean diameters were uniform and varied in the range from 12.1 to 13.5 mm. Diameter and height growth of clones varied depending on clones, and the most of seedlings at the end of the growing season were classified in 2nd(2,01 to 2,50 m) and 3rd(1,51 to 2,00 m) height class. Unsatisfactory cutting survival, height and diameter plants increments and lower dimensions of rooted cuttings at the end of the growing season could be primarily attributed to the relatively bad water and air conditions of eugley soil.
VRBEK, Boris ŠL
|Mamut, Marica||UDK 630* 431||37|
|Ties Between the Geographical and Social Geographical Features of Dalmatia with the Endangerment of Forest Fires|
|Summary: Forest fires across the croatian mediterranean area are assuming alarming proportions and are almost an integral part of the summer season, which are confirmed by numerically processed data for Dalmatia in this paper. The analysis of ties between the geographical and social geographical features of dalmatia with the endangerment of forest fires was conducted on the basis of official data obtained from MUP RH for the regions of four police departments (PU Split-Dalmatia, Dubrovnik-Neretva PU, PU Sibenik-Knin and Zadar PU).
The natural and social characteristics of the Dalmatian region have a great influence on the emergence and spread of fires. Demographic discharge and the aging population of the coastal region is closely associated with economic re-orientation of the population (transition from agriculture and livestock to tourism) and are thus creating new areas of fire hot spots. Travel orientation of this area includes a large frequency of people (tourists) in the summer when the climate is very favorable for the occurrence of fire. The Dalmatian region belongs to the climate type and subtype Cs Csa with very high summer temperatures (. 22 °C) and a very rare and weak precipitation as a Mediterranean forest ecosystem of coniferous and broad-leaved evergreen makes it flamable. Dalmatian karst area (cca 80%) is mostly composed of hard and solid limestone which makes the area very flow through and further enhances the lack of surface water, mechanical wear surfaces, removal of soil and shortage of vegetation. This situation contributes to the favorable conditions for the occurrence of fires in the open.
In the period of 1998–2008, out of all the forest fires in Croatia 31.7% (29 100 fires) was recorded in the dalmatian region. The greatest number of forest fires was recorded in the PU Split-Dalmatia (in the year 2000, more than 1,400 fires) while the highest burned area in this period was recorded in the PU Sibenik-Knin (68,235 ha). Within the Dalmatian region the larger part of the Croatian forest was burnt (even 122 241 ha or 64.3% of forest area burned RH). In the period from 1998 to 2007, the total forest area burned in the high forest dominated by pine forest attributes to only 11.6% (19 839 ha). Most of the forest area (85 690 ha or 50.2%) before the fire was covered with coppice forests, brush thickets and scrubs. In the structure of the burned open spaces of the dalmatian region , forests and forest lands are represented with 122 241 ha (53.5%), agricultural area with 25 334 ha (11.1%), the landfill with 4 106 ha (1.8%) and everything else seems 33.6% of burned area of open space.
From the sociographic and economic aspects data on the ownership of burned area and the causes of these fires are very valuable. The analysis of property ownership of the burned area showed that the majority of fires occurred on the surfaces of undetermined ownership (73.2% in Croatia, the Dalmatian area 53.7%). The largest number of fires (75%) were caused by negligence, of which 23% of agricultural areas. The greatest damage from fires are lost human lives but also damage to soil and vegetation and damage which directly affect human life. Dalmatian region participated with 71.3% of the total damages from fires in Croatia.
The fire prevention and rehabilitation of the open areas of Croatia has a great importance to local government, Croatian Forestes Ltd., police, fire legislation and institutions where it is necessary to implement short and long term measure.
Key words: Dalmatia; fires; forest area; geographical features; social geographical features. openland
|Španjol, Ž., D. Barčić, R. Rosavec, B. Dorbić||UDK 630* 907||51|
|Biological-Ecological and Spatial Valorisation of Protected Natural Values in northwest Croatian Counties|
|Summary: The Republic of Croatia is unique in terms of its natural beauty and diversity, as well as natural and human potential. Every county in Croatia, including the counties in the north of the country, boasts of distinctly specific landscapes and natural values.
Specially protected sites of exceptional value provide an inexhaustible subject of research into the structure, composition, survival and development of natural ecosystems. They supply basic information on syndynamic patterns; in turn, this information is used in the management procedures and developmental models that guarantee their survival and ensure active protection, utilization and improvement of the natural environment. These sites play an important role in the tourist, recreational and health valorisation based on primary values of the natural surrounding. In view of the limited possibilities of utilizing the protected parts of nature and of their general and specific protection, these sites may only be used in a strictly controlled and moderate manner.
There is a large number of protected natural values in the northwest part of Croatia. Almost all categories of protection are present. Protected natural values are shown in the tables with their basic features and a brief description, by counties.
Aproximately 11.52% of the total area in Zagreb county is protected, while in the City of Zagreb 21.4% of the total area is under protection. Bjelovar and Bilogora county has the least protected area, less than 1% of the total area. Protected natural values in Koprivnica and Križevci county cover 2.36%, in Međimurje county 19.87%, in Krapina and Zagorje county 5.1%, and in Sisak and Moslavina county 15.34% of the total county area.
Key words: nature protection; protected natural values; valorisation
ŠPANJOL, Željko ŠL
BARČIĆ, Damir ŠL
ROSAVEC, Roman ŠL
|Sindičić, M., D. Zec, Đ. Huber||UDK 630* 450||63|
|Analysis of Brown Bear Damages in Croatia in the Period from 2004 until 2009|
|Summary: One of the most important elements of a modern brown bear management is human – bear conflict. Economic losses are one of the key factors influencing negative public attitudes towards brown bears. In Croatia a population of 1000 bears has almost reached its biological and social capacity. Brown bear in Croatia is a game species, protected by a closed hunting season and hunting quotas defined by yearly Action plans. National Brown bear Management Plan and Hunting Act regulate compensation of damage caused by brown bears. In areas where bears are permanently present and hunted damage compensation is paid by hunting unit leaseholders, whereas in national parks, areas where bears are not hunted and in areas with only accidental presence of bears compensation is paid from the state budget. The goal of this paper was to present and analyze data about brown bear damages in Croatia during the first 6 years (2004–2009) of the Management Plan implementation, in other words the first 6 years of organized data collection. Totally 227 damage cases have been reported in this period (on average 37.8 cases per year). Most of the damage has been done on agricultural goods (54.2%), attacks on domestic animals (23.8%) and apiaries (8.8%). During this period attacks on humans have not been registered. Considering the population size of 1000 animals, brown bears cause low material damage in Croatia.
Key words: brown bear; damage; management; Ursus arctos
ZEC, Davor ŠL