|AT THE END OF THE YEAR|
|At the end of a year we always wonder at how quickly it has "flown by"; one would say “in a blink of an eye". Now it is time for new action programmes for the upcoming year, but first and foremost it is time for the recapitulation of the current programmes. We may not even need to draw up new programmes; we might just as well copy the current ones. Namely, for reasons of either objective or subjective nature, almost none of the set activities have been realized. To make matters worse, this year’s situation looks even bleaker than that of last year. One of the aims of this Editorial has always been to highlight the existing problems of the profession, argument them and seek solutions, with the expectation that the authorities will adopt the attitudes of the profession and defend them at the level of politics as the final decision-maker. Let us remind ourselves of the topics we discussed in this column in 5 bi-monthly journals issued this year, in order to see whether there has been at least modest progress or whether we will really be forced to simply copy last years’ actions programme.
The bi-monthly issue 1–2 we commemorates Emeritus Professor Branimir Prpić, Ph.D., the long-time editor-in-chief of the Forestry Journal, who passed away on the first day of 2012 New Year. Over a number of years, Professor Prpić used this column to persistently explore the current problems of the profession. Particular mention was made of his outstandingly important texts in the column Acknowledgements, in the text State Award for Science for the year 2010 – Lifetime Achievement Award for Emeritus Professor Branimir Prpić, Ph.D. In the first issue we also elaborated on the detrimental decision to cut down on the means for non-market forest functions (hereinafter referred to asOKFŠ)) by 50% and on our fear that this fee would be completely abolished.
The text in the bi-monthly issue 3–4 entitled "Croatian Forestry at a Crossroad" discusses the unfounded and ignoring attitude of politics towards the profession and the seriously undermined principle of joint decision making regarding forests and forestry. Some examples that illustrated the problem included the Danube–Sava Canal, Natural 2000, employment in forestry, and the alleged surplus of workers due to lack of jobs (there are jobs, but they are ignored), and particularly the relationship between knowledge and politically based employment.
The issue 5–6 addresses the non-existence of a coherent strategy in the relationship between forestry and timber processing, as well as persistent disagreements regarding the price and sales methods of wood assortments, which, in our opinion, leads to an un-economic and inadmissible use of highly valuable resource and consequently, lavish waste of the national wealth. The price of wood assortments in terms of the share of wood as raw material for the manufacture of high quality final wood products does not justify criticism of the allegedly high price of raw material, but brings easy profit to sawmills, as well as enables the conversion of highly valuable wood assortments into semi-products of the lowest categories. We particularly stressed that it is the wood processing subjects who are the principal users of the FSC certificates of Croatian forests, but at the same time they perceive the means for OKFŠ as parafi scal taxes which they are not prepared to pay.
The bi-monthly issue 7–8 explores the restructure of the company Hrvatske Šume Ltd. An attempt was made to restructure the company according to the "third recipe", aft er failures with the Irish and the Faculty of Economics. Although new times bring new changes, many countries with forestry traditions, including Croatia, still rely on their long-lasting experience and successful recipes. Therefore, all we need to do is compile these experiences. We stressed that the point of restructuring is not to lay off workers, but to implement the prescribed tasks and broaden the economic activities in a professional manner.
The current employment policy in forestry was discussed in the bi-monthly issue 9–10. We juxtaposed profit and all the operations intended to preserve the eternity of forests and enable them to produce goods which we all want to use but do not want to pay for.
We again hope that the voice of the profession will be heard more loudly in the upcoming year. With this hope in mind, we wish all the readers of the Forestry Journal Merry Christmas and a Very Happy and Successful New Year 2013.
|ORIGINAL SCIENTIFIC PAPERS|
|Jozo FRANJIĆ, Željko ŠKVORC, Daniel KRSTONOŠIĆ, Krunoslav SEVER, Ivana ALEŠKOVIĆ||UDK 630*165+187 (001)||559|
|VEGETATION FEATURES OF LITTORAL BEECH FORESTS (Seslerio autumnali-Fagetum M. Wraber ex Borhidi 1963) AND PREMONTANE BEECH FORESTS (Ranunculo platanifoliae-Fagetum Marinček et al. 1993) IN THE AREA OF UČKA NATURE PARK|
The area of Učka Nature Park is comprised of the Učka massif and part of Ćićarija and is characterized by its specific position on the border of Continental and Mediterranean climatic influence. Such position is resulting in high richness and diversity of plant species and communities. One of the fundamental characteristics of this area are beech forests which can be classified as continental plant communities, but as a result of such specific position they are also characterized by many submediterranean elements.
A total of 114 relevés were made during the field research and description of habitats was done including geographical coordinates, slope estimation, aspect and vegetation layers cover. Numerical analyses of floristic composition were conducted using software packages SYN-TAX 2000 and PC-ORD. To determine vegetation types and their syntaxonomic status, relevés from Učka were compared to corresponding relevés of beech forests of Aremonio-Fagion from the surrounding area of Croatia and Slovenia. In total, 1353 relevés were analysed. Out of those relevés, 982 were from the Slovenian database of relevés, 184 from the Croatian database of relevés of forest vegetation, 71 were personal unpublished relevés form the area of Lika and Gorski kotar and, finally, 114 relevés were from the area of Učka Nature Park.
Ordination analysis was conducted with the programme package CANOCO 4.5. For the description of ecological conditions we used ecological indicator values (EIV) according to the Pignatti. Descriptive statistics was calculated for environmental variables using software STATISTICA.
During the phytosociological survey we recorded 203 species of vascular plants. After the classification of relevés, as well as the camparison with the relevés of corresponding vegetation types in the area of south Slovenia, Gorski kotar and Lika, we established that in the area of Učka Nature Park the following plant associations of beech forests occure: Seslerio autumnali-Fagetum M. Wraber ex Borhidi 1963, Seslerio autumnali-Fagetum allietosum ursinii subass. nova hoc loco, Ranunculo platanifoliae-Fagetum Marinček et al. 1993.
Seslerio autumnali-Fagetum is widely distributed across investigated area and forms a continuous vegetation belt from 800 to 1150 m. Here it occurs on all aspects and slopes. On lower altitudes (700–800 m) it occurs in separate stands on mesophilous habitats (ditches, karst depressions) surrounded by vegetation of Ostryo-Carpinion. Moreover, it is present in separate stands on altitudes up to 1350 m, on thermophilous habitats within ass. Ranunculo platanifoliae-Fagetum.
They are typical stands of this association characterized by a large number of thermophilic species (Sesleria autumnalis, Ostrya carpinifolia, Sorbus aria, Acer obtusatum, Cornus mas etc.) but still with significant number of mesophilic species of beech forests such as – Acer pseudoplatanus, Daphne mezereum, Corylus avellana, Lonicera xylosteum, Cardamine enneaphyllos, C. bulbifera, Aremonia agriomonoides, Anemone nemorosa, Euphorbia amygdaloides (Trinajstić 1996, 2008; Vukelić et al. 2008).
As opposed to stands of this association on other areas (Trinajstić 1996; Dakskobler 1990, 1996, 1997), stands from the investigated area are characterized by smaller number of species (26,1 on average). The primary reason for this is great abundance of Sesleria autumnalis which prevents the growth of other species. Furthermore forests of Učka and Ćićarija occure in a broad and continuous complex and the influence of neighboring vegetation types is weaker. On other areas this plant community often occurs in a narrow zone or is intermittent by other vegetation types, therefore species from neighbouring vegetation types to some extent enter in its floristic composition (Vukelić et al. 2008).
Some relevés of this association have significantly higher number and abundancy of thermophilic species such as Ostrya carpinifolia, Acer obtusatum, Sorbus aria, Tanacetum corymbosum, etc. These stands usually occure on lower altitudes, they have more open tree layer cover with higher average EIV values for temperature, light and soil reaction. They have developed due succession of ass. Seslerio-Ostryetum. It is a secondary association which has occupied large areas in the past. In the last decades on the area of Istria there have been great changes in management practices (absence of pasture and mowing) and different migration changes resulting in the secondary succession towards Seslerio-Fagetum or Ostryo-Quercetum pubescentis, depending on the habitat (Šugar 1992; Čarni 1999; Marinček and Čarni 2002; Trinajstić 2008). On such areas by termination of management activities tree layer cover gradually closes, which creates mesophilous conditions for occurrence of beech and progressively other mesophilous species of beech forests.
In the southernmost part of the Učka Nature Park (locality Bukovo) on a very small area specific stands of beech forest are developed surrounded by the thermophilous vegetation of Ostryo-Carpinion. This is a ditch protected from the sea by high ridge. These beech stands are situated on altitudes from 500 m up to 720 m. According to average EIV values these are the warmest habitats of beech forests in the investigated area with high moisture and nutrient content. Such specific habitat features as well as proximity of Ostryo-Carpinion vegetation lead to interesting combination of thermophilous (Ostryo-Carpinion) and mesophilous (Lamio orvalae-Fagenion) species. As a result of all the above-mentioned, a new subassociation is described (Seslerio autumnali-Fagetum allietosum ursinii subass. nova hoc loco). It is characterized by presence and high coverage of mesophilous differential species – Allium ursinum, Daphne laureola, Corydalis cava, Ilex aquifolium and Leucojum vernum. Besides, it differs by high coverage of other mesophilous species such as – Lamium orvala, Erytronium dens-canis, Mercurialis perennis and others. Sesleria autumnalis as well as some other thermophilous species (Ostrya carpinifolia, Fraxinus ornus, Cornus mas and Acer obtusatum) acts as a connection towards the typical association.
Ass. Ranunculo platanifolii-Fagetum is developed in the highest parts of the Park. On Vojak it forms more or less compact complex intermittent by patches of ass. Seslerio-Fagetum on thermophilous microlocalities, while on other sites it occurs in isolated stands with more humid and colder microclimate on higher altitudes within the ass. Seslerio-Fagetum (V. Planik, M. Planik). In general, this association occurs on the highest altitudes, largest terrain slopes and on the coldest habitats with high EIV values for humidity. Stands of the association on investigated area are very poor in their floristic composition (on average 18,2 species per relevé) in comparison to other areas where this association occurs. This can be explained by the fact that Učka is a mountain which rises directly from the sea and is subjected to influence of Mediterranean climate from almost all directions. Besides, mountain massif above 1100 m is very small and simply there is not enough space which could by its size support harsh climate conditions and longer snow maintenance and therefore creating by these means favourable conditions for growth of higher number of high-mountain species (Šugar 1970).
Key words: Učka Nature park; beach forests; floristic composition; ecological factors; Istria; Croatia
FRANJIĆ, Jozo ŠL
ŠKVORC, Željko ŠL
KRSTONOŠIĆ, Daniel ŠL
SEVER, Krunoslav ŠL
|Marilena IDŽOJTIĆ, Marko ZEBEC, Igor POLJAK, Zlatko ŠATOVIĆ, Zlatko LIBER|| UDK 630*165
(Castanea sativa Mill.) (001)
|ANALYSIS OF THE GENETIC DIVERSITY OF "LOVRAN MARRON" (Castanea sativa Mill.) USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS|
Marrons are varieties of the European chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) obtained through selection, which have been grown since antiquity for the production of large and high quality fruits. In Croatia, marrons were planted on private properties on the eastern slopes of the Učka mountain, in the environs of Lovran, and are hence known as the "Lovran marron". There has been no scientific research of the Lovran marron to date, and it is unknown which plant material was used to raise the plantations, or how many different genotypes are represented. Those insights are crucial for any further steps to be undertaken in order to conserve the existing genetic resources. The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic diversity of the Lovran marron trees in the existing plantations, by using microsatellite markers. The study was conducted on a sample of 72 trees, using 5 microsatellite markers (Table 1). The analysis demonstrated the presence of 11 multilocus genotypes, pointing to the diversity and abundance of sweet chestnut taxa in the Lovran area, which have not yet been taxonomically defined and bear the collective name of the "Lovran marron". The majority of analyzed trees, specifically 58 individuals, had a uniform genetic structure and areassigned to the MG01 cultivar, which is therefore the most represented cultivar in the researched area, i.e. the one most often grown. However, not all trees are uniform, which is proven by the fact that the remaining 14 analyzed trees belong to 10 different gene pools. Of the 14 trees, 2 had not been grafted, but are found in the plantations together with the grafted marrons and are genetically specific as is to be expected. The remaining 12 grafted trees belong to 9 gene pools. Out of those, 5 trees share common alleles on all loci and are assigned the MG02 cultivar, whereas 7 trees were genetically unique and classified into 7 different cultivars (Tables 2, 3, 4 and Figure 1). Consequently, with regard to the "Lovran marron" operational taxonomic unit grown in the area of the Municipality of Lovran, although it is not taxonomically specified, on the basis of the genetic diversity analysis conducted using 5 microsatellite markers, it can be said to include several different genotypes, or cultivars, one of which (MG01) is present at a much higher frequency than others.
Key words: Lovran marron; Castanea sativa Mill.; genetic diversity; microsatellite markers; Croatia
IDŽOJTIĆ, Marilena ŠL
ZEBEC, Marko ŠL
|Dalibor BALLIAN, Faruk BOGUNIĆ, Osman MUJEZINOVIĆ, Davorin KAJBA|| UDK 630*165
(Fagus sylvatica L.) (001)
|GENETIC DIFFERENTIATION OF EUROPEAN BEECH (Fagus sylvatica L.) IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA|
European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) is one of the most important forest tree species in Bosnia and Herzegovina from both the economic and ecological aspect. Bosnia and Herzegovina has 3,231,500 ha of forests and forestland, accounting for about 60 % of its total area. In the structure of forests and forestland, high forests cover 51.10 %, coppices 38.70 %, scrubland 4.00 %, bare land and clearings 5.80 % of the total forest area, while other unproductive areas account for 0.40 %. In addition, European beech also occurs in mixed forests of beech and fir, and beech, fir and spruce, which is 46 % of all high forests. Consequently, the total area of forests featuring European beech is about 1,652,400 ha. The European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) showed very good horizontal stratification in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It grows, in combination with Sessile oak (Fagetum submontanum), in the lowest forest belts, further it can be found in hills, where it forms pure stands (Fagetum montanum), and finally in mountain areas, mixed with common fir or with both fir and spruce, forming most important community of mixed beech and fir forests (Abieti fagetum). The forests growing in the Central Dinarides are very specific; on a very small space there is a broad variety of climate, edaphic, orographic and other factors which all have direct influence on the differentiation of various ecotypes. Biochemical analysis of genetic structure of eight beech populations using 16 isoenzyme gene loci provided significant genetic differentiation. In some of the gene loci variability was high, whereas in some populations monomorphism was identified only for some gene loci. The average number of alleles per locus ranged from 2.3750 in the Velež population to 2.7500 in the Dinara population, while the average number of genotypes in a locus ranged from 2.8750 in the Posušje population to 3.5625 in the Dinara population. The highest heterozygocity was found in the Čemerno population and the lowest in the Velež population. Some of the observed alleles, such as Pgi-B1, represent rare allelles, which is very useful for subsequent determination of seed and plant material provenance, and indicates specific stand markers. Apart from their importance in determining the origin of forest reproductive material, they are also vital for the successful application of management measures. The negative fixation index values in the studied seed stands are indicators of more liberal management. They would not lose much of their genetic potential for adaptation since they possess sufficient genetic variability, as confirmed by this research. Genetic multilocus diversity ranged from 55.26 to 185.29, and genofund diversity was between 1.2000 and 1.3616. The obtained parameter of mean differentiation for all the populations was relatively low and amounted to Dj = 4.86. This parameter indicates the proportion of total diversity and can be assessed with about 95.14 %. This value is conditioned by inter-population and intra-population genetic diversity and by lower differentiation between the populations. The highest differentiation was found in the Posušje population (Dj = 7.58), which points to its high stability and homogeneity in comparison with other populations from this research. In order to maintain natural genetic resources of European beech in Bosnia and Herzegovina, it should be establish dense network of gene banks in situ and ex situ (seed zones, seed stands, clonal and seedling seed orchards), which are necessary for maintaining genetic diversity of the populations. On the basis of research each important ecological niche for European beech should have its gene bank, with appropriate collection of genotypes, in order to preserve ecological and physiological features of the populations. Since only partial genetic structure of European beech in Bosnia and Herzegovina was provided by this research, further study is needed in order to perform genetic distribution of seed units of this valuable commercial species. Particular attention should be paid to the delineation of provenances (seed stands), as well as to experimental division based on provenance tests and the study of ecological-physiological properties.
Key words: European beech; izoenzymes; genetic diversity and diff erentiation
KAJBA, Davorin ŠL
|Stefan WIRTH Milan PERNEK||UDK 630*443||599|
|FIRST RECORD OF THE MITE Histiostoma ulmi IN SILVER FIR AND INDICATION OF A POSSIBLE PHORETIC DISPERSAL BY THE LONGHORN BEETLE Acanthocinus reticulatus|
The mite Histiostoma ulmi (Histiostomatidae), originally discovered by the describer within the bark beetle galleries of genus Scolytus, has been found to be phoretic on a tenebrionid beetle Hypophloeus bicolor. The first discovery of H. ulmi in the galleries of the longhorn beetle Acanthocinus reticulatus indicates the possibility of its phoretic association with several beetle carriers: tenebrionid, cerambycid and scolytid beetles. In Croatia, scolytids of the genus Pityokteines, occupying the same niche within their food plant, silver fir (Abies alba) could represent these additional carriers.
Acanthocinus reticulatus infested the bark of an Abies alba specimen as a pioneer taxon, as opposed to the usual earliest colonising beetles Pityokteines spinidens and P. curvidens. Histiostoma ulmi was reared from samples taken from the galleries of this longhorn beetle’s larvae. As is typical for histiostomids, these mites feed on bacteria. They represent a monophyletic group of at least six very similar species. The morphological characters separating H. ulmi from similar species are expressed only in adult mites. Deutonymphs found attached to Pityokteines were previously determined to be Histiostoma piceae, but were never reared to adulthood. Due to a close resemblance between the deutonymphs of H. piceae and H. ulmi, incorrect assignments, relying only on deutonymphs for determination, are possible. H. ulmi was observed under laboratory conditions carrying spores of an undetermined mold fungus. Other phoretic mites, such as Tarsonemus, are known to carry spores of blue stain fungi (Ophiostomatidae) which could be of practical importance in silver fir decline. Future studies need to show, whether deutonymphs of H. ulmi, possible vectored by bark beetles, tenebrionids and longhorn beetles, also carry spores of blue stain fungi.
Key words: Pityokteines; Acari; Histiostomatidae; Histiostoma ulmi; Histiostoma piceae; Acanthocinus reticulatus; fungal spores; hyperphoresy
PERNEK, Milan ŠL
|Damira TAFRA, Marija PANDŽA, Milenko MILOVIĆ||UDK 630*174||607|
|WOODY PLANTS OF THE OMIŠ|
This paper presents a list of woody plant taxa and their dendrological and horticultural qualities. Taxonomical, ecological and phytogeographical analysis cover 239 of taxa. The results are given in Tables 1–2.
There are 72 families, 156 genera and 239 of taxa in total (Table 1), twenty of them belonging to gymnosperms and 219 to angiosperms. The angiosperms group is largely dominated by the dicotyledones (205 taxa; 85.87 %).
Out of 72 families, four of them have more than 10 species and subspecies. The largest number of species belongs to the Rosaceae (33 taxa; 13.80 %), Fabaceae (14 taxa; 5.86 %), Oleaceae (13 taxa; 5.44 %) and Lamiaceae (11 taxa; 4.60 %) families. Species from the above mentioned four families make 29.71 % of the total woody plants of the Omis.
The composition of woody plants of the Omis is quite heterogeneous which is obvious from a large number of families (72) and genera (156). There is only 1.53 species per genus and 3.32 species per family. The most frequent genera are Prunus (11 taxa), Tamarix (5 taxa) whereas Acer, Lonicera, Populus, Rosa and Ulmus are present with 4 taxa.
Analysis of dendroflora due to habitat type (acc. to Erhardt et al. 2002) indicates the dominance of shrubby forms (132 of taxa; 55.23 %), following by the trees (83; 34.73 %), while the group of woody climbing plants is the least represented (24; 10.04 %).
Within the dendroflora of Omis, there are 89 (37.20 %) autochthonous and 150 (62.80 %) allochthonous species. Of the total number of taxa of autochthonous dendroflora, 43 of taxa (48.31 %) occur in the wild, 24 (26.97 %) grow only in culture, while 22 of taxa (24.72 %) occur in culture as well as in the natural and seminatural vegetation.
The allochthonous ones are dominated by species in culture (121 species; 80.67 %), casual (21; 14.00 %) and 8 naturalised. These results are consistent with those relating to other parts of Croatia. An increased presence of allochthonous plants, especially neophytes, is a reliable indicator of the intensity of the anthropogenic impact to the flora.
The majority of all the allochthonous species that appear on different areas never manage to get naturalised so their existance depends on the re-appearance of the diaspora. A small number of the naturalised species has the ability of invasively spreading beyond the place of their original appearance.
In woody plants of the Omis, naturalised species are represented by 3 species (Agava americana, Morus alba and Prunus cerasifera) and the invasive ones by 5 species (Acer negundo, Ailanthus altissima, Amorpha fruticosa, Broussonetia papyrifera and Robinia pseudoacacia).
Although only a small number of species brought into the culture has the ability to domesticate and spread invasively into the surrounding habitats, some of them can cause serious eco-system irregularities. In the region of Omis especially dangerous could become Amorpha fruticosa covering more and more areas along the Cetina river thus suppressing native species. Knowing that invasive species mainly domesticate and spread through horticulture it is advisable to avoid them in horticulture.
Regarding geographical origins (Table 2), the allochthonous dendroflora of Omis is dominated by species from Asia (65 taxa; 43.33 %), America (23.33 %) and Europe (12.80 %). The most frequent Asian species in the horticulture are those coming from China (Buddleja davidii, Kerria japonica, Rosa banksiae etc).
Quite a significant number of woody species, autochthonous as well as allochthonous, and their high diversity attribute to an exceptional value of the dendroflora of Omis.
The research results relating to woody plants of the Omis and other Croatian regions indicate an unjustified long-term neglect of autochthonous species in culture in comparison with the allochthonous ones even though they have adjusted themselves to the existing climate conditions which makes the maintenance of horticultural objects easier, not to mention that their decorative qualities match those of the allochthonous species.
Key words: allochthonous and autochthonous dendroflora; town of Omiš