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|ORIGINAL SCIENTIFIC PAPERS|
|Željko Lovrinčević, Davor Mikulić||UDK 630*906+794 (001)|
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|Marko Zebec, Marilena Idžojtić, Igor Poljak||UDK 630*164 (Ulmus minor Mill. sensu latissimo) (001)|
|MORPHOLOGICAL VARIABILITY OF THE FIELD ELM (Ulmus minor Mill. sensu latissimo) IN CONTINENTAL CROATIA pdf HR EN||563|
The European field elm (Ulmus minor Mill. sensu latissimo), our native noble broad-leaved species is known for having very valuable and highly prized wood. The favorable characteristics of this tree are not limited solely to its economic usefulness, since it also has more important, invaluable role in preserving the stability of lowland forest ecosystems. Unfortunately, European elm trees have suffered enormous losses due to Dutch elm disease pandemics, which resulted in significant dieback of adult trees. Nay, threats to morphological and genetic diversity of U. minor s.l. are manifold and expressed in terms of anthropogenic-induced destruction of habitat, introduction of new elm species and spontaneous hybridization with ornamental species, as well as extremely high susceptibility of elms of the Ulmus Heybr. section to the said Ophiostoma novo-ulmi Brasier pathogenic fungus. Giving the fact that in Croatia elm trees are also severely affected by the disease, abundance of healthy, adult individuals in the field is rather low. Accordingly, it is presumed that genetic and consequently morphological diversity of U. minor s.l. in Croatia as well as throughout Europe has been exceedingly negatively affected.
The study of morphological variability of leaves encompassed six elm populations (Ulmus minor Mill. sensu latissimo) from continental Croatia: Bilogora, Dilj, Donji Miholjac, Jastrebarsko, Nova Kapela and Zagreb (Figure 1). Quantification of the intra- and interpopulational variability was done on the basis of 10 morphological leaf traits (Figure 2). In order to describe the pattern of variability, descriptive statistics and multivariate methods were used. Analysed morphological traits showed high variability, despite hypothesized negative impact of Dutch elm disease on morphological variability of the studied species. The variability coefficient for populations in total ranged from 17,05 % for the trait of number of secondary and tertiary veins in the subapical region to 45,24 % for the trait of leaf base asymmetry (Table 1).
There were significant differences among trees within populations and among populations for all measured leaf traits (Tables 2 and 3), except for four traits on populational level: leaf blade area (LA), leaf blade breadth at its widest point (HW), leaf blade length, measured along the shorter side of lamina, starting from the leaf base to the point of maximum leaf breadth (PMPW) and leaf blade width at 50 % of leaf blade length, measured along the shorter side of lamina (PW1).
Partitioning of variance showed that differences among trees in a single population accounted for 1/2-2/3 of total variability, whereas the amount of variation attributable to differences among populations was considerably smaller. However, interpopulation variability proved high for the trait of number of secondary and tertiary veins in the subapical region and the trait of petiole length (Table 4). Application of cluster analysis revealed grouping of populations regarding ecological site conditions (Table 5 and Figure 3). However, negative impact of anthropogenic activities on environmental conditions in terms of land use alteration and hydroregulation processes as a basis for population differentiation was also confirmed. Thus, the first group of the most similar populations involved Bilogora, Donji Miholjac, Zagreb and the second group Jastrebarsko and Nova Kapela. The reasons for the Dilj population differentiation can be sought in its affiliation to the Central European vegetation zone thermofilic forests of the alliance Quercion pubescentis-petraeae Br. – Bl. 1931.
In spite of continuous anthropogenic pressure on the environment and consistent destruction of natural habitats, accompanied by the introduction of the invasive neophytes, ornamentals and current pandemic of Dutch elm disease, we revealed high morphological diversity of field elm populations. Thus, this study provided accurate insight into morphological diversity of U. minor s.l. in continental Croatia. Precisely for this reason and with the aim of conservation of elms biodiversity in Croatia, the continuation of this type of research is essential and necessary.
Key words: Ulmus minor Mill. sensu latissimo; variability; leaf morphology; continental Croatia
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