|ORIGINAL SCIENTIFIC PAPERS|
|Belčić, B.||UDK 630* 263 (001)|
|Structural properties and natural succession of riparian forests at the mouth of the river Mura into the river Drava pdf HR EN||103|
|Krejči, V., Dubravac, T.||UDK 630* 231 + 236.1 (001)|
|Reforestation problems in peduncled oak forests (Quercus robur l.) of moist type during seed cutting pdf HR EN||119|
|Krpan, A. P. B., Poršinsky, T.||UDK 630* 323 + 362 : 30 (001)|
|Efficiency of Mechanical Felling and Processing in Soft and Hardwood broadleaved stands – Part 1: Attitudes of Forest Professionals towards Mechanical Felling and Processing pdf HR EN||127|
|Seletković, I., Potočić, N.||UDK 630* 425|
|Crown Condition of Forests in Croatia for the Period 1999–2003 pdf HR EN||137|
|Vizentaner, J.||UDK 630* 272|
|Inventarisation of trees and shrubs in the Park round prince Eugen Franjo of Savoya and Piemont castle in Bilje pdf HR EN||149|
|Summary: The parks and gardens round the castle contain often a great number of specieses of trees and shrubs so that they have not only landscape, aesthetic, cultural and general useful function, but scientific, educational and economical value, as well. The inventarisation of the parks is not used only as basis of the categorisation and suggestion for protection of certain park, but it is the basis, together with the history research, of the renewal research. Even though the Western European countries made these studies a long time ago, our parks and avenues are usually neglected and in decay.The work presents the inventarisation of trees and shrubs in the Park round prince Eugen Franjo of Savoya and Piemont castle in Bilje which was done in 2000. There was specified their appearance in layers, each unit was located and its breast height diameter was measured regardless whether it’s located in the forest or totaly cultivated part of the park. The distribution of breast height diameter has been made. It has been measured the crown’s diameters only of the trees and shrubs in the completely cultivated part of the park. It has been done the chemical and mechanical analysis of the soil. It has been established original fitocenosis with the precentage of specieses portion, information extremely necessary for regulation of park’s regeneration.|
The park round the castle of prince Eugen Franjo of Savoya and Piemont is a park situated almost in the centre of Bilje. The area of the park and the castle is 8 ha 90 are 07 m2. The address of the castle is 32 Šandor Petefi street.The park and the castle are at 87,5 height above see-level. The hunting castle of the prince Eugen Franjo of Savoya and Piemont belongs to the district of Bilje, land-registry Beli Manastir. The castle and the inyard garden (particle 916), a part of the park round the castle (particles 917/2 and 918) are possessed by “Hrvatske šume” and the particle 917/2 belongs to the Republic of Croatia. For the research there were used data from Archives in Osijek, Museum of Slavonia in Osijek and from the Ministry of Culture, Bureau for Protection of Cultural Heritage, Department of Ancient Monuments in Osijek. The Archives of the castle was destroyed during the Homeland war and after the pieceful reintegration. The archive of the catholic church in Bilje was supposedly destroyed by humidity and mould. It has written to the museums, archieves and libraries in Karlsrue, Budapest, Bratislava, Vienna, Sremski Karlovci and Belgrade and asked for the data about the park. But all the answers were negative.
The park and the castle were at first connected to the count and later to the prince Eugen Franjo of Savoya and Piemont and to the Habsburg family. For a period of time Marija Kristina, a daughter of Marija Terezija, lived in the castle. The historic value of the park is great. Namely, it is supposed that the castle is one of the remaining three “Wasserburg” (Wasser castles) in Croatia (Lekenik, Jastrebarsko, Bilje). But the rooms dug in the wall of the trench, which are arched, and the space for ice show that it was a dry trench, which was much harder to occupy. The trench is today a part of the park and presents together with the castle an inseparable unity.
Soil research of the park ...
In 2000 it is founded out 2345 units of trees and shrubs within the park round the castle of prince Eugen Franjo of Savoya and Piemont. There are in the park 3 autochthonous specieses of conifers, 29 autochthonous specieses of broadleaved trees, 8 alochtone specieses of conifers and 37 alochtone specieses of broadleaved trees. Some hybrids are founded in the park, as well: Platanus ´hispanica Münchh., Populus ´canadensis Moench, Spiraea ´vanhouttei (Briot) Zabel, and cultivars Rosa L. which were not possible to define. All 8 alochtone specieses of conifers are exotic plants, as well 31 out of 37 alochtone specieses of broadleaved trees are exotic plants. Chart 1 gives the list of autochthonous and alochtone specieses of trees and bushes and the exotic plants. In the chart 2 there are given plants in the park in 1977 and in 2000. Some important differences were found by some specieses of trees between the list from 1977 (Rauš 1977) and the state found out by this work. So it is established for the trees older than 40 year that they belong to Celtis occidentalis L., and not to Celtis australis L., to Platanus ´hispanica Münchh., and not to Platanus occidentalis L., to Populus ´canadensis Moench, and not to Populus deltoides W. Bartram ex Marshall. Some of the specieses like Abies concolor Lindl. ex Hildebr., Aesculus pavia L., Cotinus coggygria Scop., Eleagnus pungens Thunb., Euonimus japonicus Thunb., Forsythia europaea Degen et Bald., Jasminum nudiflorum Lindl., Populus nigra L. ‘Italica’, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, Symphoricarpus orbiculatus Moench and Wisteria sinensis (Sims.) Sweet have disappered because of the inapropriate care of the park. The question of Salix babylonica L. will remain open because it is almost always about cultivar Salix alba L. ‘Tristis’. According to Jović, Čermović & Getz (1982), the mentioned Acer monspessulanum L. is not found by the inventarisation. The precentage of specieses portion of autochthonous and alochtone conifers and broadleaved trees and shrubs in the park is given in the chart 3. Mostly represented with 22,35 % is Acer campestre L. Celtis occidentalis L. (20,94 %), Robinia pseudoacacia L. (8,53 %), Ulmus laevis Pall. (6,61 %), Acer platanoides L. (6,31 %), Tilia tomentosa Moench (3,54 %), Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle (3,37 %), Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl (2,64 %) and Ulmus minor Mill. emend. Richens (2,47 %). The precentage of the remaining specieses, including Quercus robur L. (0,38 %) and Carpinus betulu L. (0,13 %) is less than 2,0 %. As the analysis of the soil (Vrbek 2000) showed, the soil which was not altered by human activities is eutheric brown soil and according to the through inventarization listed specieses, the original phytocoenose is Carpino betuli - Quercetum roboris /Anić 1959/ em. Rauš, 1969. According to the presented distribution of the breast height diameter there are too many trees with 10–20 cm of breast height diameter, which is understanadable because of the fact that in the 60s of the 20th century the army of SFRJ built an object beneath the park, so that the conditions of risosphere were changed. The trees get sick and gradually get withered when the root system enteres the region of changed conditions. So it comes to deseas and pest, the crowns get withered and within some time the whole unity dies. That’s why there are some places where more light reaches the soil so that new plants begin to appear.
The value of the work is, in the fact, that it has been established the value of the park, so that after establishing of the Historical study and Study of the invantarisation of the present situation, with inventarisation of trees and shrubs as its constituent part, it could be started with the Study of rebuilding which should be the basis for the rebuilding of the park and protection of our horticultural heritage.
|Martinić, I.||UDK 630* 907.1|
|Forestry Profession in View of the Establishment of Ecological Network of the Republic of Croatia pdf HR EN||163|
|Konjević, D., Janicki, Z.||UDK 630* 156 + 132|
|Diseases of Game, Zoonosis and Possible Methods for Conducting the Preventive Measures pdf HR EN||173|