|ORIGINAL SCIENTIFIC PAPERS|
|Rubin, G.||UDK 630* 453 + 450|
|The Parasite Complex of the Pine Processionary Moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff.) in the Region of the Split Forest Management pdf HR EN||363|
|Popijač, M., Vrebčević, M.||UDK 630* 165 + 188 + 232.3|
|Aplication of GIS in Forest Seed Units Divisions pdf HR EN||373|
|Sabadi, R.||UDK 630* 904 + 903|
|The achievements of German forestry and their econometric analysis pdf HR EN||385|
|Summary: Forest cover of FR Germany comprises about 30% of the total land area, or 10.7 million hectares of forests, 9.5 million ha being statistically surveyed. 20% of total area is corporate, 34% state, and 46% private ownership. Statisticallysurveyed forests are owned by 434,000 forest owners. 64% od them belong to holdings primarily occupied by agriculture, managing 1.5 million ha of forests (16% of the total forest area), and owing an average area of 5.4 ha of forests per holding. Larger holdings of all kinds of ownership, in all 156,000, manage the total area of 8 million ha of forests, or 84% of the total area, with an average area per holding of 51.1 ha.Growing stock in German forests averages high 271 m3/ha, annual average growth is about 5.9 m3/ha. Growing stock of German forests per ha is 195% of the European average, net annual growth 137% of the European average, and annual cut is 141% of the European average. Spruce, fir and Douglas fir cover 35% of forest area, pines and larch 31%, and broadleaved species cover 35%.|
The measures to fight forest damages taken by government and pther institutions givbe some result, but tjese are obviously insufficient, the acidity of soils and penetration of heavy metals into undergorund water continue progressively. The Germam forests contribute to storage of carbon dioxide in quantity of 30 million tons a year. Carbon dioxide represents about 86% of all emmission gases producing greenhouse effect.
The anxiety that pollution will cause the destruction of German forests luckilly did not materialise, most probably it wan’t happen either in the near future..Deterioration of forest soils contiues further. Even if input of pollutants are stopped, the damageous activity of pollutants already in the soil wouldn’t be stopped.
German forestry has made the total turnover in 1997 of about 3.56 billion DM, added value in it being 1.78 billion DM. In the business year 1997 38.21 million m3 of timber is cut (under bark), which is sold at an average price of 88 DM/m3. In the said business year the cut in average was 3.2% larger than previous year (in private forests the cut was +7%, in state forests +4.9%, and in corporate forests -4.1% to previous year).
In all types of ownership the cut was close to the allowable cut, with the exception of 1990, when due to storm damages the cut was double of allowable annual cut..
Corporate and private ownership enjoy multiple state subsidies in money and kind, the income statements of net results without these subsidies are called net income I, and with subsidies net income II respectivelly. In corporate forests in the period 1989-97 net income I. was postive only in 1990, when an average 12.3 m3/ha was cut; in private forests in the same period net income I. was negative in 1992 and 1993. In corporate forests net income II, in spite of subsidies was positive only in 1989, 1990, 1994, 1995, and in 1997. In the state forests, with the exception of 1980, 1981, and 1990, net income was always negative, and is conered in principle from the lands’ and federal’s budget.
The results of business operations of all types of ownership and size of holdings, predominant species and volume of timber cut differ.
The way of subsidizing differs, and it is the result of carefully defined forest and economic policy. The conversion of forests towards close to nature stands, afforestation of agricultural land of marginal productivity, fighting tree diseases, forest fires, etc. are among primary targets of policy of supporting forestry. In the same way the marketing and promotion of use of wood as ecologically cleanest material in construction, and other fields of application are supported as well.
Since the annual average growth of all German forests is about 5.9 m3/ha, and that positive operations, without losses and subsidies, are possible only in stands predominantly spruce with a high proportion of logs of 7.5 m3/ha, obviously the solution of the problem should be find in cutting costs.
It is established by econometric analysis that in production function where annual average cut (Q) is dependent variable, machines and transportation equipment applied in DM per ha (capital, K), and labour in hours/ha (L) as independent variables, of all deviations, in state forests 9.5%, 18% in corporate, and 33% in private forests, might be explained by production functions, which are withih 95% confidence interval, significant only in case of production functions for corporate and private forests. From these empirical production functions comes obviously out that substituibility od labor is very high compared with capital equipment applied. Significant investments in German forestry support the conclusion of this analysis. Very low percentage of deviations explained in case of state forests seems logical, since the state ownership has a lot more of social responsibilities than other ownership types, which at the level of forest range, as well as in higner levels, gives services, free of charge or discounted, to all other forest owners.
The supply/demand equation is only in one case significant. Only small part of deviations is explained by empirical demand equation, since the demand and sale prices run parallel, except in 1990 due to the increased supply of timber damaged by storm, which proved the value of analysis performed.
Key words: Economic achievements; production functions demand functions
|Domac, J.||UDK 630* 238 + 831|
|First Results of the International Project “Socio-Economic Aspects of Bioenergy Systems” pdf HR EN||413|