|ORIGINAL SCIENTIFIC PAPERS|
|Vukelić, J., Baričević, D.||UDK 630* 182 + 188 (001)|
|Recent Phytocoenological Perceptions on Beech Forests in Croatia pdf HR EN||439|
|Summary: The paper deals with a phytocoenological analysis and comparison of beech forest communities in the sub-montane and montane belt in Croatia. These communities have been treated and described in past phytocoenological literature in different ways. Based on the analysis of over 250 phytocoenological recordings (130 recordings are given in Table 1) from Gorski Kotar and Lika, to north-western Croatia and Slavonian hills and eastwards to Požeška Gora and Babja Gora, four associations with the following systematic position have been found: Alliance Aremonio-Fagion (I. Horvat 1938) Török, Podani et Borhidi 1989|
Associations Lamio orvalae-Fagetum (I. Horvat 1938) Borhidi 1963
Hacquetio-Fagetum Košir 1962
Vicio oroboidi-Fagetum (I. Horvat 1938) Pocs et Borhidi 1960
Alliance Fagion sylvaticae Laquet 1926 em. Lohm. et R. Tx. in R. Tx 1954
Association Carici pilosae-Fagetum Oberdorfer 1957
Beech forest with deadnettle (Lamio orvalae-Fagetum) grows only in the Dinarids and in the north-westernmost part of Croatia at 400 to 800 m, but not in the rest of the Pannonian uplands, as was thought earlier. It is characterised by the wealth of Illyrian, and especially Dinaric species, which differentiate it from other beech communities. It contains the characteristic species Lamium orvala, as well as the Illyrian species occurring over the entire Croatian range: Dentaria enneaphyllos, Aremonia agrimonoides, Cyclamen purpurascens, Hacquetia epipactis, Daphne laureola and Euonymus latifolia. The community does not have a uniform composition in its overall distribution range. Two variants can be identified in Croatia: the southern in the Dinaric part, which can be determined as the variant Calamintha grandiflora, and the northern in the hills of north-western Croatia, characterised by the species Corydalis cava. The differentiating species of the Dinaric variant, apart from large flowered calamint (Calamintha grandiflora L.), are Rhamnus alpinus ssp. fallax, Omphalodes verna, Lonicera alpigena and Scopolia carniolica. In the northern part of the range (the Corydalis cava variant), these species occur rarely or are completely absent (except on Moslavačka Gora), and their differentiating species are Corydalis cava, Ruscus hypoglossum, Vicia oroboides, Dentaria trifolia, Euphorbia dulcis, Paris quadrifolia and some more thermophilic species. In general, it can be concluded that, not counting beech-fir forests, the range of this community coincides with the range of the species Lamium orvala (Figure 1).
The second association of beech forest with hacquetia (Hacquetio-Fagetum) grows in the north-west of Croatia as a zonal community on the carbonate base, most frequently on neutrophilic, slightly drier soils at a transition from the hilly to the mountainous area and in the lower part of the mountainous belt at slightly lower (400-700), drier terrains than the previous association. The characteristic species are Hacquetia epipactis, Primula vulgaris and Aposeris foetida. There is a large number of differentiating Illyrian species, but towards the Slavonian uplands to the east, where the range of this community ends, their number and participation decline (Lamium orvala, Hacquetia epipactis, Cardamine trifolia). The species of other systematic units are also less frequent and include, for example, Prenanthes purpurea, Gentiana asclepiadea, Lilium martagon, Phyteuma spicatum, Phyllitis scolopendrium and others. Thus, for the moment, the range area of this beech forest is limited to north-western Croatia.
Beech forest with wood bitter-vetch (Vicio oroboidi-Fagetum) occurs most frequently on dystric cambisol of a mildly acid reaction, on metamorphic and igneous substrate of the Slavonian uplands, in conditions of lower climate humidity and at altitudes above 350 meters. It has a zonal character, and in typological research it is mostly described as Asperulo-Fagetum. It contains a much smaller number and cover of Illyrian species than the previous communities, but the species Vicia oroboides, Knautia drymeia, Ruscus hypoglossum, Aposeris foetida, Epimedium alpinum, Primula vulgaris, Cyclamen purpurascens, Helleborus odorus, Euonimus latifolia, Dentaria polyphylla, Erythronium dens-canis still place it within the alliance Aremonio-Fagion. The position of the hills in which it occurs is responsible for the loss of the Illyrian features and the elements of forests of high terrains, which the association Hacquetio-Fagetum in Slovenia possesses. The acidophilic nature is sporadically present, as the stands of this community are frequently surrounded by the community Luzulo-Fagetum.
Beech forest with sedge (Carici pilosae-Fagetum) occurs on Bilogora and Kalnik and on the edges and in lower parts (as low as 200 m), and only rarely on the tops and higher parts of other Slavonian hills. It differs profoundly from the three previous associations, displaying independence in its floral composition, ecological conditions and physiognomy. The floral composition is dominated by the species of the Central European floral geo-element of the alliance Fagion and the order Fagetalia. In Croatia, this clearly differentiates it from the community Vicio oroboidi-Fagetum. The characteristic species are Festuca drymeia and Cephalanthera longifolia, while the very frequent Carex pilosa and Rubus hirtus have a large cover. Due to insufficient field recordings and broader comparisons, beech stands dominated by the species Carex pilosa and Festuca drymeia have been equated with the community Carici pilosae-Fagetum from Central Europe in both this paper and in past phytocoenological presentations in Croatia, although there are considerable differences between them. The proper description, range and syntaxonomic position of this community will be established in future research. The research is being extended to encompass those parts of beech forests in Croatia which have not been adequately studied so far (Slavonian hills, Banovina, Kordun, the Ogulin area, Medimurje area). The research will also include lower units of the association.
|Čarni, A., Franjić, J., Škvorc, Ž.||UDK 630* 182+ 188(001)|
|The Bush Vegetation of the Forest Margins in Slavonia pdf HR EN||459|
|Franjić, J., Škvorc, Ž., Pandža, M., Kekelić, B.||UDK 630* 188(001)|
|Forest Vegetation of the Oštrica Peninsula (Dalmatia, Croatia) pdf HR EN||469|
|Bezak, K.||UDK 630* 525 (001)|
|The Models of Pedunculate Oak (Quercus robur L.) Stands and the Monetary Value of Wood Assortment Production pdf HR EN||479|
|Kremer, D.||UDK 630* 181.8 + 270|
|The Phenology of Summer Flowering of Some Woody Plants in the Botanical Gardens of the Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics pdf HR EN||489|
|Martinić, I.||UDK 630* 907.1|
|Management Plans of National Parks and Nature Parks of the Republic of Croatia pdf HR EN||501|
|Šporčić, M.||UDK 630* 945.1|
|Some Indicators of Internet Forestry Information pdf HR EN||511|